Atomic protons? The nucleus of the atom of each stable element has a certain number of protons, and except for hydrogen, also neutrons. These numbers are what differentiate the elements and give them properties, whether gaseous, metallic, alkaline, reactive or inert. Protons have a positive electrical charge.
The number of electrons will match the number of protons to give a stable atom a neutral net charge. An atom which loses or gains an electron or 2 is known as an ion. An atom which gains one or more neutrons is known as an isotope. However ions and isotopes still have their proper numbers of protons.
Ions will seek to attach to another particle so as to gain stability. Isotopes will decay over time, sometimes thousands of years.
All the elements are arranged in families or groups where chemical properties are comparable, in the Periodic Table of the Elements