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It is not only ******* for a VFR only pilot to fly in the IFR system, it is also potentially very dangerous. Even many IFR rated pilots are killed each year from spatial disorientation. IF you are on a straight in approach to a runway with a localizer or ILS and just tune it in and fly the ILS I don't think that's an issue.
It's quite permissible to do so, however a general aviation pilot in a low performance plane should be ready for fast instructions and quite a bit of maneuvering to stay out of the way. The best time to do it would be at night. Here's a youtube video of one doing it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KKvWn317tpU
If you're going for a Private Pilot Single Engine Land (PPSEL) certificate you don't need to know anything about IFR approaches. You will learn to fly traffic patterns and all the maneuvers and procedures required for that and for safe flight, learn how to navigate, and learn about airplane systems. You can get a huge head start by looking at websites and you tube links from places like Boldmethod.com, MzeroA.com, and UND aviation.
Older planes are usually very good purchases, IF they have been well maintained over the years. Airplanes have to be inspected annually by an A&P mechanic with an Inspection Authorization so they are usually very well maintained. Any purchase should include having an A&P mechanic review the airframe and engine logs and evaluation of the plane, including looking at how many hours the engine has since overhaul and checking compression. I had a 1966 Cherokee 140 for several years and finally sold it when I bought my current Experimental aircraft (a BD-4). It helps a LOT if you can get an A&P license and maintain you own plane though.
160 is the final approach heading to runway 18. You notice that this approach does not align exactly with the runway, you make a slight right turn to land. 115deg is the outbound leg heading for a procedure turn and 295 is the return heading from the procedure turn, from which you would turn 160 on final and fly the 160 line to the missed approach point. DME is required for this approach so you would either need DME or a GPS that can supply distance information. To fly this full approach (from southerly directions) you would fly to the VOR, fly outbound at 3000' MSL on a 340 heading for about 7 miles then turn left to heading 115 for 1 minute then right turn to 295 and intercept the 340 radial, turn right to 160 and descend to 2300' by GRAMA and continue descending to 1220" at 1.6 DME from the VOR. From that point, if you have the proper visual cues you may descend below 1220' to land, if you can't see the runway environment from 1220 feet at 1.6 DME then you must stay at that altitude until you do see it or you reach the missed approach point at .3DME. There's a very real reason that an instrument rating is required for IFR flight. It takes a lot of training and practice to learn to do it right - and even then you may not have it all correct. (I may well have missed something on this approach but I haven't been IFR current in several years)
Well technically you can make a ducted fan plane but it is highly inefficient as battery technology is still in its infant stages as well as batteries are still very heavy. Secondly Jet engines are basically high bypass turbines.. They can technically run on many different fuels such as diesel, kerosene, and propane.
Technically is you are flying domestic you are not flying over foreign airspace. If flying IFR you must file one. Needless to say when filing a flight plan you must decalre if you are domestic of international flight.
Usually it is airspeed of the aircraft. Each aircraft has different airspeed requirements for operation the flaps or landing gear. Usually that speed is determined by the airframe manufacturers and the design of the flap system component. You could built it strong enough to handle any airspeed, but a plane can only carry so much weight. If you built everything to work without any limitations you might have an airplane too heavy to fly. Designing a plane is a balance between lifting capability and weight. Both of these are important design parameters.