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Re: sewing machine problem
Not knowing what type of machine you have I just have to say there are three letters to remember... T-N-T. Thread, Needle, Tension.
Since this is obviously not a tension problem you have to make sure the machine is threaded correctly. Incorrect threading will cause this as will the bobbin in upside down and turning the wrong way. Then there is the needle. Be sure it is inserted properly. My opinion is the needle is in wrong or the bobbin is turning the wrong way. Good Luck.
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use a couple of pieces of waste material the same as the sweat pants material and sew about an inch long
adjust the needle tension and do it again
repeat the exercise until the top and bottom thread joint at the middle of the two pieces of the material
tension settings on the machine are a loose guide as the thread thickness, material thickness and needle size all have a bearing in the tensions of the thread
so practice and adjust prior to sewing is the way to go
you probably wont find it listed anywhere as it is from experience and changes with different material thickness and needle size
SO how to set tension
thread the machine and adjust the tension until you feel a drag on the thread
now thread the needle and sew a piece of scrap material
if the thread bunches up underneath then increase the thread tension until it sews properly
if the bottom thread is pulled to the top or the thread keeps breaking loosen ti off a bit
when the stitch is being properly formed , both bottom and top threads should meet at the center of the two materials being sewn
This is caused by the tension between the bobbin and needle threads being out of balance. If the knots between the stitches are on the bottom side, then you need to tighten your needle thread tension a little at a time until the knot is in middle of fabric. The reverse of this is if the knots are on the top, then either your bobbin tension is too loose or your needle thread tension is too tight. If this occurs, then loosen your needle thread a little at a time to see if knot goes down in middle of fabric. If it does not, then you need to increase the tension on your bobbin thread. This done by taking bobbin case out and tighten the small screw located in the middle of the spring on the side of the case. You only need a slight, steady pull on the bobbin thread - the more you put on the bobbin, the more you are going to have to put on the needle thread.
Below is general advice quoted from 6 common sewing machine problems solved:
Skipped stitches are usually due to a bad needle. The needle may have become damaged or bent by sewing material too thick for the needle, forcing material through the feed dog, or hitting a straight pin. If the problem seems to be consistently reoccurring, it may be due to forcing the fabric. Sewers should allow the feed dog to pull the fabric and only use their hands to guide the fabric through the feed. When sewing knitted fabrics, using a stretch needle can help prevent skipped stitches.
Below is a video showing how thread is hooked into a fabric:
Not sure if I can help, but it may have to do with the heavy thread as well as the fabric and needle combination. If the fabric is thick or tightly woven, be sure to use a brand new sharp needle. (If the fabric is tightly woven (like Batik), a thicker thread may present a problem.) In your case, if using a heavier thread, perhaps a top-stitch needle would be beneficial since it has a bigger scarf to protect the thread. With the heavier thread in the top, the top tension will need to loosened. BUT, if you loaded the heavier thread in the bobbin, the bobbin tension will need to be adjusted to accommodate the thread thickness. However, remember that if you adjust the bobbin tension for this project, you will most likely need to readjust it for the next project using different materials.
FWIW, if the machine still works fine with regular fabric and thread, then you'll know that the issues revolve around the current project.
Make sure thread is not laying across the bobbin when you look down into the plastic slider that covers the top loading bobbin case. The bobbin on mine I observed was loose in the case so that as the machine ran, eventually the bobbin thread would jump out of the stitch finger (the silver piece to the far left of the bobbin case, past the tension slots). I solved this problem and so can you! Take the extra felt spool pin felt in your accessories kit that came with the machine, remove bobbin from case and drop this small felt circle into the bobbin case. Replace bobbin. On the 4423, the bobbin thread goes counter-clockwise and drops into the tension discs, and goes all the back until it falls into the space left of the silver stitch finger. Make sure take up level raised all the way up! Then pull the needle thread toward you until bobbin thread comes all the way up. If you start sewing and you actually can SEE the bobbin thread laying across the bobbin, STOP and tethered because that would mean your thread did not slide all the back behind the silver stitch finger--however, I assure you, if you go one step at a time, you did it correctly! You will be smiling in no time! Why? The felt helps to make the bobbin rest in the correct position to keep it from jumping out of the groove. I hope this helps you. Jimmy
The tension for cotton is set the same way tension is set for any fabric:
1. The thread should pull freely with a small resistance before/after it goes through the needle, on many machines that's half way on the tension adjustment.
2. The bobbin thread when dangled by the thread with the bobbin inside the case should drop down a bit when slightly flicking your wrist like you do with a yo-yo. If it reels out to the floor the tension is too loose. If it doesn't drop at all it is too tight.
3. Now make sure you use the right type of needle. For cotton you want a "sharp" and for reg. weight cotton about a size 10 maybe 12.
Now take a piece of strap cotton material like you're going to sew a seem and sew with a wide zig zag. Example the top side and then the bottom. They should appear identical, flat with needle holes at each side where the thread disappears to the other side. You should see no loop where the threads over lap each other and the material should not be puckering in the middle.
If that is not what you see then think this way:
The TOP side of the stitch is effected by the BOTTOM thread. the bobbin tension.
The BOTTOM side of the stitch is effected by the TOP /needle tension.
Adjust the responding tensions until the stitch looks the same on both sides. Now you are ready to sew your cotton! :)
If it was sewing correctly BEFORE the needle break...why did the needle break in the first place?...and what fixes did you make?
If it sewed properly...what changed?
Cut your upper thread close to the spool...make sure the presser foot is raised and pull the cut off thread section through/out of the machine from the needle area (sewing direction...do not pull the thread backwards!)
Clean out the bobbin area...remove any traces of lint or pieces of thread...look for any broken off needle pieces... brush the bobbin area out....then add a drop of sewing machine oil (but only if your manual says to oil that area).
Remove the needle plate to expose the feed dogs...brush/clean out that area too and add a drop of sewing machine oil...then secure the needle plate back on.
Replace the needle...do it again...yup...some needles arrive bad from the factory. Make sure the needle is inserted and positioned properly. Then thread the machine WITH the presser foot in raised position. (The thread needs to get seated into the upper tensions.)
..with the.presser foot down...thread the new needle.
Oh...and use the correct needle for the thread. (a universal 80/12 is standard).
Thread can cause issues too. Try a different bobbin, or maybe a different spool of thread to see if that makes a difference.