How do you teach 3 to 4 years old children spelling?
Generally speaking spelling is not taught to three and four year old's. Children have to start with the basics. The start of learning how to spell is learning the alphabet. Believe it or not there are three year old's and even some four year old's who do not know the alphabet.
To teach preschoolers the alphabet, you generally focus on one letter at a time and have the child complete a tracing sheet where they learn to write the letters by copying the outline of the letters. Other ways to teach the alphabet are reciting the alphabet song, ready a book about the alphabet, or making each day represent a letter of the alphabet and teaching subjects, reading books, eating snacks, and making crafts that start with that letter of the alphabet.
The first word a child should learn to spell is his/her own name. A child can learn to spell as they are learning to read, but it does not do much good to teach spelling to a child who cannot start to recognize words, and understand that words are formed when you put letters together.
The focus for three and four year old's should be on learning new words, not on learning how to spell. Three and four year old's generally do not know how to read or spell. These are things that are taught beginning with pre-kindergarten and into kindergarten. You need to teach a child as many words as possible before you teach them to spell.
Once a child knows the alphabet you have to teach them the sound that each letter makes. If a child doesn't recognize the sounds that letters make, they won't be able to spell. This is all part of the pattern in learning to read, spell, and write. When it comes time for spelling, you can have giant cards with each letter on them and put them on the floor. Say something like "Josh find me the letter that makes the "mmm" sound, and wait for Josh to bring the correct letter card to you. Then ask the next child to bring you the letter that makes the "a" sound. Then ask the final child to bring you the letter that makes the "p" sound. Then sound out the words with the child.
Focus more on learning new words, learning to trace and write letters, and learning to write a child's name than on spelling at this age. They are more likely to retain the skills of spelling and reading as they get older.
Words that preschoolers should know:
Basic opposites: Up/Down; Happy/Sad; Hot/Cold; On/Off; Yes/No
Primary colors: Yellow; Red; Blue + Black and White
Days of the week
Months of the year
People in their family: Mom; Dad; Brother; Sister; Grandma; Grandpa; Aunt; Uncle; Baby; Me
Common animals: Dog; Cat; Elephant; Lion; Tiger; Bear; Giraffe
Major holidays: Christmas; Birthday; Easter; Halloween
Single letter words: I and A
Joining words: And; By; and The