Compatibility of Ink cartidge.
The MP600 does not use the 40 or 41 cartridges, it uses individual color (and black) ink tanks. But other models (MP190, MP460, MP470, etc) do use these cartridges. The error message you are receiving indicates that the printer does not recognize the cartridge you installed as a valid black ink cartridge. This can mean that either the cartridge is faulty, or that the printer has a problem.
I would suggest trying another new cartridge, and if you still get the same error, to contact Canon for support options if the unit is still in warranty.