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While each case is different (depending on which component has shorted in the modem), most are the diode or protective capacitors with problems.
From a cost and time standpoint of view, you can get an internal PCI modem from about $19.95 or so, and I have even seen them as low as $14 or $9 at times. When they come into the shop, most modems are usually gone so bad (especially from surge or lightning damage) that the best option is to always replace it.
If the "link" light on the modem is the one referring to the ADSL stream, you can rule out the router. If it's the one referring to the internal network, you can rule out the cable.
Of course you're still left with two candidates either way.
Many routers (and modems) have an user interface which may be accessed, often through the browser. Check on your network adapter properties to see the IP address of the gateway and try typing the same address in Internet Explorer address bar. You may be requested username and password (usually on the manual, on the contract, or possibly it's "admin/password", "admin/admin", "user/password" - or must be asked to tech support).
In this interface there's often a "log" window detailing what happened. You may see things like "lost carrier" or "retraining" meaning cable or modem problems, or you may see "uptime 5 minutes" meaning that the modem or router rebooted recently (possibly a defective AC adapter? Loose power connector?).
It's not easy to tell between cable and modem problems because you should have access to the cable's other end, and only your ISP has it. You can check with them and hear what they have to say.
If you want the public IP Address assign to your computer, setup your modem into Bridge then create a broadband dialer to your computer. Through this dialer, you have to type in your username and password which will allow you to connect to the internet.
This is the link to te sound driver I linked to xp drivers You can change the Os to vista or other on this page to display new drivers. Hope this helps. Thank You. Please Rate me. If the driver gives you problems installin please let me know.
Are you sure it's a modem and not an Ethernet port? The port looks like you can plug a telephone line in, except the port is bigger. If you try plugging in a telephone line in and it won't click into place, then what you got is an Ethernet port.