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I am going to build a timber playhouse and need to build a level foundation on top of earth, Could you please let me know the correct way to lay the slabs to ensure that they dont sink when the ground gets saturated. thanks, chris franklin

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Not sure what part of the country you are in, but if the ground freezes in winter the ground will move. The best answer is to excavate the organic material (dirt) and backfill with gravel topped off with a layer of sand to easily work the slab or pavers.

Posted on Mar 14, 2011

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Dig down deep. you will need a separation geotextile (say geotex 250 st) separate the soil and a layer of rocks (basically drainage). once the gravel is in place, another layer of geotex and sand.,. use your own judgment as far as the depth in respect to the existing soil type you are working in. typically 6" of crushed stone and 3+ inches of sand would suffice, depending upon the magnitude of your building... you may want to check with your local code enforcement team to be sure they do not have restriction or other comments...
Best regards

Posted on Mar 14, 2011


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How much glue is needed to lay 30sq meters of timber flooring on concrete

How long is a piece of string comes to mind. There are several factoring issues. I would read the label on the tin and it will give an indication of glue coverage.

Jun 08, 2017 | Building Materials


Safe Construction Tips

<span>Transformation of soil from a solid state to a liquid state as a consequence of increased pressure and differential settlement of footings is known as soil liquefaction.<br /><br />The features to be considered at the stage of architectural planning and structural design of buildings for protection against earthquakes are:<br /><br />. a) Building configuration<br />b) Foundation<br />c) Control on openings in walls<br />d) Reinforced concrete bands in masonry buildings.<br />e) Vertical reinforcement.<br /><br /><br />Protection measures against floods are:<br /><br />i) Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks should be avoided.<br />ii) Buildings should be built at 250 metres away from the sea coast/river banks.<br />iii) To build proper drainage system in all flood prone areas.<br />iv) To construct the whole village or settlement on a raised platform higher than the high flood level.<br />v) To construct the building with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.<br /><br /><br />The measures adopted to control land degradation in different areas of our country are:<br /><br />i) Soil erosion in hilly areas can be checked by construction of terraces for farming.<br />ii) Plugging of gullies by construction of check dams.<br />iii) A forestation can control soil erosion on slopes.<br />iv) In arid areas preparation of shelter belts of plants control over - grazing by animals and growing thorny bushes to stabilize the sand dunes.<br />v) In semi-arid areas, moistures conservation, weed control and proper management of waste land.<br />vi) Control of mining activities are some of the methods to curb land degradation.<br /><br />. Industries cause water pollution by:<br /><br />i) The industrial effluents that are discharged into rivers. They are both organic and inorganic.<br />ii) The principal industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, tannery, etc.<br /><br /><br />The damaging effects of earthquakes on the ground are<br /><br />i) Soil failures such as liquefaction and landslides caused by shaking.<br />ii) Tidal waves (Tsunami) i.e. large waves on the surface of water bodies, that can cause major damage to shoreline areas.<br /><br /><br />Two facts which should be borne in mind while selecting a site for a building in coastal areas are:<br />i) To build at least 250 metres away from the sea coast.<br />ii) Where houses can be built with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.<br /><br /><br />Ground movements caused by earthquakes can have several types of damaging effect such as:<br /><br />a) Soil failures such as liquefaction and landslides caused by shaking.<br />b) Tidal waves ( Tsunamis ) i.e. large waves on the surface of water bodies that can cause major damage to shoreline areas.<br />c) Surface fault ruptures such as cracks, vertical shifts, general settlement f an area, etc.<br />d) Ground shaking i.e., back and forth motion of the ground, caused by the passing vibratory waves through the ground.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />The primary objective of earthquake resistant design is to prevent buildings from collapsing during earthquakes thus minimizing the risk of death or injury to people in or around those buildings. There are certain features, which if taken into consideration at the stage of architectural planning and structural improve their performance during earthquake.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />The natural factors responsible for landslides are:<br /><br />a) If slopes are steep.<br />b) If there is high intensity of rainfall.<br />c) If slopes have stiffness.<br />d) Soil layers formed under gravity.<br />e) Rock layers are highly weathered.<br />f) Poor drainage.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />The man made factors responsible for landslides are:<br /><br />a) Soil erosion caused due to deforestation.<br />b) Mining and quarrying.<br />c) Excavation which is non-engineered.<br />d) Construction which is non-engineered.<br />e) Land use pattern.<br /><br />If buildings cannot withstand the forces of high winds and storm surge, than these buildings are considered vulnerable. Generally those most vulnerable to cyclones are lightweight structures with wooden frames, especially older buildings where wood has deteriorated and weakened the walls. Houses made of poorly constructed concrete blocks are also vulnerable.<br />Urban and rural communities on low inlands or in unprotected low-laying coastal areas or river floodplains are considered vulnerable to cyclones.<br /><br /><br />Man made factors responsible for causing landslides:<br /><br />i) Soil erosion caused due to deforestation.<br />ii) Mining and quarrying<br />iii) Excavation which is non-engineered <br />iv) Construction which is non-engineered.<br />v) Land use pattern. <br />. The configuration of an earthquake - resistant building are:<br /><br />a) Building should have a simple rectangular plan.<br />b) Long walls should be supported by Reinforced Concrete Columns.<br /><br />Foundation of an earthquake-resistant building:<br /><br />a) Assess the potential for soil liquefaction to avoid tilting cracking and failure of structure.<br />b) Adequate foundation design should be planned so that building can withstand earthquakes.<br /><br /><br />Vulnerable homes for landslides are those which are situated on:<br />a) Below hills with outcrops of fractured rock.<br />b) Steep natural slopes, particularly on weak geologic materials.<br />c) Developed hillsides where septic - tank, soil absorption systems are used and land-scapes are irrigated.<br />d) Steep construction-related cut or fill slopes.<br />e) Areas in or at the mouths of drainages such as canyons.<br />f) Existing landslides area.<br /><br /><br /><br />Most vulnerable homes for floods are:<br />a) If biomas materials like bamboo, leaves, thatch are used to construct huts then they are easily destroyed in floods and washed away.<br />b) Buildings which are constructed with earth-based material or using stone and brick in mud mortar.<br />c) Flood plains attract poor urban dwellers because of inexpensive land values.<br />d) Occupation of areas within the flood plains of rivers especially in areas of high population has increased the vulnerability.<br /><br />The Effect on buildings due to floods are:<br /><br />a) Water under high stream velocity washes away the houses.<br />b) Rising waters may cause in flotation of houses from their foundations.<br />c) Even though houses remain intact on their foundation, floods may cause severe damage to materials.<br />d) Velocity of water may erode th foundation of the house which may result in the collapse of the house.<br />e) Massive floating objects like trees, electric poles, etc., may effect the standing houses and cause significant damage.<br />f) Other forms of damage are wall erosion, cracks and bulging damage to water supply, sanitation and electrical systems.<br /><br />Protection measures against floods are:<br /><br />a) Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks should be avoided.<br />b) Buildings should be built at 250 meters away from the sea coast/river banks.<br />c) To build proper drainage systems in all flood prone area.<br />d) To construct the whole village or settlement on a raised platform higher than the high flood level.<br />e) To construct the building with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.<br /><br />The effects of cyclones on buildings are:<br /><br />i) Punching and blowing off of corrugated iron roofing sheets attached to steel trusses.<br />ii) Brittle failure of asbestos - cement sheeting of the roofs of industrial sheds; failure of these sheets is generally ridges and gable ends.<br />iii) Failure of large industrial buildings with light weight roof coverings and long/tall walls due to combination of internal and external pressures.<br />iv) Failure of roofing elements and walls along the gable ends particularly due to high internal pressures.<br />v) Overturning failures of compound walls of various types.<br />vi) Failures of improperly attached or constructed parapets.<br />vii) Damage to roof/lintel projections.<br />viii) Damage to improperly attached windows or window frames.</span>

on Jan 25, 2011 | Hammering

2 Answers

Building a pergola 5,5 metres x 2,5 metres what size timber do i need for 5,5 metre span

different grades of timber and types of timber have different strengths
a laminated beam will be stronger than a solid beam and will be less in dimension to do the job
Architects have a book showing timber strengths for lengths so find an architect and get the right advice from him
if you find that the beam will be too big for what you want, consider using a steel rhs beam and using timber as a surface finish on 3 sides
that is a common practice in building structures

Feb 18, 2017 | Office Equipment & Supplies

1 Answer

Wicked witch of the west

The steps to pole-building success are simple: Create a level base pad (if you want more than just the earth underfoot), set poles vertically into holes in the ground, connect them across the top with beams and braces, then put roof trusses on top. No need for a complicated foundation, either. Even in regions with cold, frost-prone winters, pole barns endure well with nothing more than the simplest connections to the earth. And if this weren't advantage enough, pole barns also offer the option of using your own logs and rough-cut lumber for many parts of the job. The only thing wrong with pole barns is the name. This building approach is so much more useful than for building barns alone.
If you've never constructed anything large before, then a pole building is a good place to start. The information you'll find in this article will equip you to custom build your own durable pole barn based on universal design and building principles. Most building authorities require simple plans for project approval, though many will accept hand-drawn versions. Agricultural extension services across the continent also offer basic pole building plans for free. You can buy fancier ones online. Either way, success ultimately comes down to the kind of hands-on know-how you'll find here.
Create a Base Besides the fact that you'll need to locate your pole building on flat, well-drained ground, consider adding fill to create a raised base area. This isn't necessary for all applications, though it provides a more level floor space that's raised enough to keep water from draining in, even during wet seasons.
There are four reasons crushed rock screenings are my favorite choice for a raised base. Screenings are usually less expensive than other types of aggregate because they're a byproduct at many quarries. Screenings also are small - typically less than a quarter-inch in diameter, with lots of stone dust mixed in. This makes screenings easy to rake and level accurately. They pack down firmly, too. And screenings don't ruin the future growing potential of soil forever. When your pole barn needs to come down after its working life is over, scrape off the screenings and use them somewhere else. Unlike larger grades of crushed stone, the leftover screenings that the loader can't remove will disappear when you till the soil.

Oct 11, 2014 | Heating & Cooling

1 Answer

Build a pizza oven in the back yard

All you need is bricks and cement.
Use perforated bricks or regular 65mm bricks for the support. A light oven may be built on an U shaped support (you will need to make some structural considerations about the weight). Moreover the U shaped support on top requires an armed concrete slab adequate to support the chamber. If you are not sure about structural performance, build a solid support block of bricks.
Make sure that the support is adequate for the weight of the heavy chamber. If the oven is big, then lay basic foundations or build the oven straight on the ground.
For the chamber you must use refractory bricks (fire bricks). You have different choices of design. A common shaped that do not require armed concrete parts is the igloo style chamber. Leave space for the chimney on top of the chamber.

Mar 24, 2013 | Ovens

2 Answers

How to build a foundation for 7.5x10 shed

The fist thing you need to know is what zoning/building code requirements are for your area. Then you need to decide what type of foundation you want. This is a small shed, and in many jurisdictions, can be placed on pier blocks and have a wood-floor foundation. This is obviously the least expensive way to go, but also will have the shortest lifespan. Concrete is a option, but then footings, and height above grade become an issue that must be checked to ensure the slab doesn't crack and that you aren't going to get flooded out with the first big rainfall. Brooke s right that it is not a project that can be taken lightly. Do your research and don't bite off more than you can chew. Know your DIY limits. Some jobs are better left to those who know how.

Dec 30, 2011 | Suncast 7.5' X 10' Storage Building

1 Answer

How do you use foundation correctly?

I have been a makeup artist for many years, having my own freelance business, working for Estee Lauder, and Lancome, and I strongly believe the best way to use foundation is to start with an exfoliated, clean, and moisturized face.
Step 2: Find a foundation that matches your skin tone. Test it by applying a little on your jaw and blending it down toward your neck. The color should always blend into your neck. Thats how you know its the right color for you. Also, for best results, go for a foundation with medium-full coverage.
Step 3: Apply foundation with a clean foundation brush, and blend down. Foundation brushes give you a flawless finish and you use less of your foundation that way. Sponges will only absorb the foundation, and fingers will give you uneven coverage, and spread bacteria to your face.
Step 4: Apply a translucent powder on top, to help set the foundation, and than Blush or bronzer.
Good Luck :)

Nov 22, 2010 | Health & Beauty

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