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You should be able to use your SB-22 with your D5000, however you can only use it in the manual mode since it is not a TTL speed light. That means you will need to manually set both the camera and the flash unit. I have done that successfully with an SB-25 on both my D800 and D90 in a pinch, but you should consider investing in either an SB-700 or SB-910. They are allot more versatile.
It sounds like you're trying to use the SB-600 off camera, as a slave flash. While the SB-600 does indeed have slave capability, the D40 does not have the ability to function as a commander. Thus, the SB-600 is being triggered by the D40's pre-flash.
As stated above, the D40 does not function in commander mode. You can mount an SB-800 or SB-900 flash unit, which will function as a commander as well as a flash. Or you can mount an SU-800 commander unit.
Alternatively, you can switch the D40 to manual flash mode so as to eliminiate the preflash. However, you will then have to calculate the proper exposure yourself.
1) i-TTL: TTL flash control by 1,005-pixel RGB sensor, built-in flash, SB-800, SB-600, SB-400: i-TTL balanced fill-flash and standard i-TTL flash 2) AA (Auto Aperture-type) flash: Available with SB-800 used with CPU lens 3) Non-TTL Auto: Available with Speedlights such as SB-800, 28, 27, and 22S 4) Range-priority manual flash; available with SB-800
You probably haven't changed the camera and/or flash back to TTL mode from wireless mode. Make sure they are both set to TTL, not commander mode and you should be fine. Note that the LCD on the flash will indicate which mode it is with a little graphic. On the D70 you had to switch between TTL and Commander mode to set it up to work using the built in flash as the commander, so you just have to switch back.