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Which processor used in this calculator? - Casio FX991MS Scientific Calculator

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How does motherboard work


Hey linda,
Sorry for being late as i was having exams.
I hope you asked me about working of Computer and the role of motherboard in it. First i will explain about each individual part of motherboard and then will tell you how they are working all together to perform your tasks as simple as possible..
Actually motherboards are Circuits Printed or Embedded on a board so as to connect many other components like processor, RAM, BIOS, Hard Disk and other disk drives. They provide expansion slots and connectors to connect other devices so that you can increase your computer's performance and capabilities.
Motherboards provide connections between these devices and help to exchange data and information in a controlled and efficient way.
Simply we can say that all Motherboards usually consist of the following main components.
1. CPU Slot to hold Processor, which does all the calculations given in the computer per a clock pulse. It's like a million instructions per second or micro seconds or something like that. These are rough values and accurate values differ from processor to processor.
(CPU->Central Processing Unit)
2. Memory Controller: Controls the usage of memory while performing calculations, comparisons and other operations.
By the way There are two types of memories available on the computer which are connected to our motherboard.

Primary memory: These are the most important memories as they are needed for the calculations, comparisons and performance etc. Example: RAM and ROM.

Secondary Memory: These are used to store the results of calculations permanently ( or till you need it) for further reference.

3. Input-Output Unit (I-O Unit): The input and output units help us to connect and give instructions to our computer through input devices and read the output or result of the calculations done with inputted values through output devices. Basic Input Devices are Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner etc. while basic output devices are Monitor, Printer, Speaker etc.

Now with all these slots and connectors, we will now look into it's working.
In computer, SMPS distributes power to all the components inside your CPU CABINET. So, When AC mains is given, SMPS distributes it to the power supply unit of our motherboard and through that to our power button. This means that when ever power is given, motherboard will get power supply but won't switch ON until we press our power button.

Note: The start up procedure of a computer is always termed as Booting. The booting process starts once you power on the system and will continue till the Operating System is loaded into primary memory.

So, after you press our power button, ROM or Read Only Memory will immediately gets activated and instructions contained in it for System start up, Hardware and it's Fault Detection, Booting Up and Shutting Down Process will help the motherboard to identify it's processor, RAM, I-O units(Only Keyboard, Mouse and Display), and some memory devices in which the Operating System (OS) is located. All these devices will contain a coded address by which it is targeted and addressed.

After identifying, it checks and detects any hardware faults. The faults detected may either be shown via output devices or a buzzer alarm( Alarm is also there within the motherboard). And if no fault is detected , it continues the booting process. The next step of booting process is to acquire the physical address of location where OS is located. It then acquire and extract data from the location of the device and load it's files into RAM. RAM is just like a waiting list or queue in which all the process which are executing, to be executed next are stored till the process is completed. So, the data extracted from the location (as told above) which is now stored in RAM will contain some instructions for the processor to do. These instructions may include loading of other files from other locations, starting display units, showing some other error messages. So, these instructions are carried out by processor and loads other OS files like a chain function. So, it goes on executing other process and tasks till the computer is switched off.

Thus for each process you call on your computer(like a game or a simple calculator program or anything), it first loads all the necessary files into RAM, accepts necessary instructions from input devices, executes all the instructions in it using processor and displays the result through output devices and this goes on till you exit that program.

Also, processor also has some units like Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit , Cache etc. Instructions are executed according to their type (whether it is arithmetic or any other type) and use Cache as their temporary memory for calculations. While Cache is used to store temporary results of the active calculations, RAM stores the list of processes executing and to be executed ( as told above).

So, as told above, Motherboard provide connections between processors, RAM, ROM,I-O Devices, USB, Network Adapters, Graphic Devices etc.

Thank you for asking me a direct question.If you want to know more detailed working like what are the instructions given to varies devices like Processors and RAM, how are they given, how instructions in ROM are embedded etc, feel free to ask me. Once again sorry for being late.

Jan 05, 2012 | Dell Computers & Internet

Tip

How to find out what process a program uses


1) So the fist thing you do is open the program that you want to find out about. As an examlpe I will open Microsoft's calculator from Start Menu -> Accessories as shown in the image below.
slasher_x_32.jpg
2) Next you will need to open the Task Manager by pressing Ctrl + Alt + Del. NB: You must have all three keys pressed down at once starting with Ctrl then Alt and lastly the Delete key.
3) Now the Task manager should appear. As you can see there are many tabs here such as Applications (which displays the applications running), Processors (which displays the processors the running applications are currently using), Performance (which displays what percentage of your processor is in use as well as how much RAM is still available), Networking (which displays the load on the Local Area Network; and Users (which displays how many and which user accounts are active at the present time).

4) Now on the Task Manager under the Applications tab right click on the program and click Go To Process at the bottom of the pop up menu.
slasher_x_33.jpg
5)This will then take you to the process that the program uses. In this case with Microsoft's calculator we see it takes us to a process called calc.exe, this is the calculators executable file (the file that makes it start up and run). Ending this process will immediately close the calculator application.
slasher_x_34.jpg

EXTRA: This tip is useful when your system crashes or freezes after you end a task with the Task Manager. Simply find the process of the application that is not responding under processes and right click it then choose end process. This will immediately bring your pc back from the frozen state.

on Jan 22, 2011 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

I have a ti3 and ti 86 but not got intructions for ti86 and was considering getting ti92 but not sure if the ti 92 is any better than what i have


That depends on what you need to do with the calculator. The TI-83 is better at some things, the TI-86 is better at some other things, and the TI-92 is better at yet other things.
The 83 and the 86 both use the Z80 processor, though the 86 is quite a bit faster. The 92 uses a 68000 processor. Though the 83 has a faster processor than the 86, the 86 has some additional calculus capabilities.
You can download TI's manuals from their support website.
There's a good comparison of present and past models here.

Dec 03, 2011 | Office Equipment & Supplies

1 Answer

Purchased the new anniverary version and after about 9 months it just would not turn on , previous units lasted about 10 years at 99 .00 dollars i need to fix this one


Having gone over half a year without a response to my query, I assume a new set of batteries solved the problem.
The Anniversary Edition 12C uses a much faster processor than the original 12C. The new processor also uses more current, and thus you won't get battery life as long.

Jul 15, 2011 | HP 12c Calculator

1 Answer

My calculator is frozen how do i fix it?


Please remove off the battery for few minutes and allow the charge to phase off which should reset and get the calculator's processor to work.
After removing the battery press all the keys to discharge any charge and replace battery after about 15 minutes.

Mar 24, 2011 | Texas Instruments TI-84 Plus Silver...

1 Answer

What is the parts of a calculator?


There is a processor chip which handles calculations, a keyboard & membrane to accept commands, the keyboard sensors below the membrane to record the keystrokes to the processor, a battery, lcd display and sometimes a solar panel to recharge the battery.

Mar 10, 2011 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

When I ad or substract it always comes up 0 , for istance 234.40. How can I correct this problem whereas it comes to the correct change amount insteas of all 0's.


The processor ic is breaking down and overtime will get worse until the calculator becomes unusable, there is no cost effective way to service this instrument, you are further ahead replacing it.

Jan 09, 2011 | HP 30s Calculator

1 Answer

The square root of any number using the TI83+ is different by a small amount from the TI89 differentiated number. Is the a programing issue?


Not the square root of any number. Both machines give the same result for the square root of 4, for example. The differences for other numbers are due to the fact that the two calculators use different processors and carry different numbers of significant digits for internal calculations. The square root of most numbers is an irrational number, with an infinite decimal representation. It has to be cut off somewhere. If you cut it off in two different places, you're going to get two different numbers (unless there happens to be zeroes where you cut...).

Jul 04, 2010 | Texas Instruments TI-83 Plus Silver...

2 Answers

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF AMD OF A COMPUTER


42 :-)
Alright, to be serious for a moment, AMD is just one of several manufacturers of what is called a "processor", or "CPU" inside a computer. They also label the models of their processors using their company name in the model names.
Although computers themselves consist of many different parts working together in unison to run your programs- the processor is often referred to as the closest thing to a "brain" in the computer. It is responsible for performing millions of complex math calculations each second, whenever Windows or another program is run and used.
Other manufacturers of processors you might recognize, are Intel (who designed the Pentium line of CPUS), and ARM (which you may not have heard of, but that has had some remarkable developments).
Hope this helps...

Jun 30, 2010 | Intel Motherboard

1 Answer

How to use more than 50% of processor


what program is this, what operating system are you using, and what model of laptop is this?

the simplest possible explanation is that your laptop has two processors, and the program you're running is only designed to use 1 processor.

which would mean that since the program will always leave one processor free, you'll never exceed 50%.

without more details though, I can't be certain that's the real reason.

Mar 29, 2008 | Computers & Internet

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