If you have device A connected to device B over a Gigabit link, and the link does not come up, perform this procedure.
1. Verify device A and B use the same GBIC, short wavelength (SX), long wavelength (LX), long haul (LH), extended wavelength (ZX), or copper UTP (TX). Both devices must use the same type of GBIC to establish link. An SX GBIC needs to connect with an SX GBIC. An SX GBIC does not link with an LX GBIC.
2. Verify distance and cable used per GBIC as defined by Cisco.
3. If either device has multiple Gigabit ports, connect the ports to each other. This tests each device and verifies that the Gigabit interface functions correctly. For example, you have a switch that has two Gigabit ports. Wire Gigabit port one to Gigabit port two. Does the link come up? If so, the port is good. STP blocks on the port and prevents any loops (port one receive (RX) goes to port two transmit (TX), and port one TX goes to port two RX).
4. If single connection or Step 3 fails with SC connectors, loop the port back to itself (port one RX goes to port one TX). Does the port come up? If not, contact the Cisco TAC, as this can be a faulty port.
5. If steps 3 and 4 are successful, but a connection between device A and B cannot be established, loop ports with the cable that adjoins the two devices. Verify that there is not a faulty cable.
6. Verify that each device supports 802.3z specification for Gigabit auto-negotiation. Gigabit Ethernet has an auto-negotiation procedure that is more extensive than the one used for 10/100 Ethernet (Gigabit auto-negotiation spec: IEEE Std 802.3z-1998). When you enable link negotiation, the system auto-negotiates flow control, duplex mode, and remote fault information. You must either enable or disable link negotiation on both ends of the link. Both ends of the link must be set to the same value or the link cannot connect. Problems have been seen when you connect to devices manufactured before the IEEE 802.3z standard was ratified. If either device does not support Gigabit auto-negotiation, disable the Gigabit auto-negotiation, and it forces the link up. Warning:
Disabling auto-negotiation hides link drops or physical layer problems. Disabling auto-negotiation is only required if end-devices such as older Gigabit NICs are used which cannot support IEEE 802.3z. Do not disable auto-negotiation between switches unless absolutely required to do so, as physical layer problems can go undetected, which results in STP loops. The alternative is to contact the vendor for software/hardware upgrade for IEEE 802.3z Gigabit auto-negotiation support