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you derailleur cable sounds like it is loose. put the shifter into the lowest gear. Release the cable at the derailleur, pull it tight with your fingers then tighten up the set screw/nut to hold it in place, this should allow the shifter to complete the "throw" fully and move the chain into place on the large sprocket.
It's on the transmission where the shift lever goes through the case. (left side) before you replace it, make sure that it doesn't just need to be adjusted. You can check by holding the key in the crank position with one hand and move the shift lever with the other. Make sure you have the park brake on, it may start in gear.
Sounds like you need to check you cable tension. If the limits are set correctly and the derailleur spans the cassette range, then the cable tension is incorrect to make all the necessary click stops. If the cable tension is correct then you may have problem with the shifter or you are routing the cable through the rear derailleur incorrectly.
Without knowing what specific components you are using it is impossible to be of more help, sorry.
The "H" screw is the one that is letting your chain jump of f of the ring. If the screws are not labeled, the way to distinguish the two is to shift the front as high as it can go and hold it there manually. Screw either adjusting screw in. If you are screwing the correct one, it either will not move at all or move only very slightly.
First thing is first: flip your bike over onto the bars and saddle. The best method to adjust these settings is to shift into your small ring and let loose the shifter cable. Now shift your rear derailleur into the lowest gear and manually pedal the bike while adjusting the "L" screw on the front until the derailleur cage allows relatively free rotation of the chain. Now set the barrel adjuster on your down tube fully turned in (clockwise). Pull the cable taut and reattach at the derailleur. Shift into your middle ring (or high ring if you have a double-ring crank) and then shift the rear to the highest gear. Use the barrel adjuster to get the derailleur cage to just clear the chain while cranking. If you have already succesfully set your "H" screw to a point where the chain no longer jumps off, then you are all set here. If not, hold the front shifter in while cranking and set the stop so the chain cannot get off of the big ring, but far enough out so you can purposely over-shift by just a bit. Sometimes if you shift early, that little bit of over-shift is very helpful.
i hope this helped, but if you would like to see pictures of this happening, go to parktool.com/repair and check out their tips on derailleur adjustment.
Front or rear?
Rear: Flip the bike onto the bars and saddle, then shift into third while turning the crank. Use the barrel adjuster on the back of the derailleur to align the derailleur over the proper cog. If this doesn't work, you may have a bent cog or a bent derailleur hanger. Does it only happen in third? Inspect your third cog for any deviation.
Front: Shift into the small chainring and release the derailleur cable. Pull tight and re-attach. Shift into the big chainring now. If it still won't go, use the barrel adjuster on the shifter co tighten the cable until it does shift. If necessary (because the derailleur will not go to the big chainring on account of a mechanical impedance) adjust the "H" screw to allow the derailleur to move far enough out to shift on to the big ring.
If all else fails, check with the bike shop.
It sounds like the limit screws on your derailleur body are out of adjustment. They are usually small phillips head screws on the body of the front and rear derailleur that limit the travel of the derailleur body on the rear so that the chain cannot get shifted into the spokes or off the smallest cog into the frame. On the front they prevent the chain from shifting off the inside or outside cogs. There are good articles under front and rear derailleur adjustments at this site:http://www.parktool.com/repair/byregion.asp?catid=53 I hope this helps.
It sounds like you could have two different problems. Your derailleur has become contaminated or your shifter may need to be lubed. Either way, the likely solution is the same. The best solution to get the derailleur operating again is to spray it with GT-85 or PB blaster and manually move in back and furth until it is working again. The same goes for the 105 shifter, spray GT-85 inside the shifter by compressing the brake lever and spraying towards the head of the shift cable. This will solve a non-functioning shifter many times.
The only other problem that fits is the limit screws could be wrong or the deraileur is in the wrong position. This would not be the case unless someone adjusted your derailleur before the ride you started have that problem. Or if the derailleur has moved. Both of which require the derailleur to be fully readjusted.
Try this first: Shift into the little ring and release the cable. Pull it tight (with pliers) and re-tighten the cable. It should shift now. If it doesn't, the solution is a little time consuming, so i apologize in advance. First, flip your bike onto the bars and saddle. Now shift into the small chainring and your lowest cassette cog (the largest in number of teeth). Release the cable from the front derailleur and set the adjustment knob for the front derailleur to its center point. You should find it on your down tube. Now adjust the "L" setting on the derailleur while turning the crank so that its stop sets it in a position where it just skims the chain but does not touch it. Now pull the cable taut and re-clamp the cable. Shift into the middle ring and shift the rear derailleur to its highest and lowest gears, making sure the chain does not rub the front derailleur. If it does rub (it will be in either the lowest or highest cog on the cassette), adjust the front derailleur by way of the adjustment knob to clear the rub. Then shift into the big ring and you should have no problem. Set the "H" stop if necessary.