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Your upper and lower thread tensions are out of balance. The upper thread tension is too high or your lower thread tension is too low. Make sure your bobbin thread is correctly routed under the tension spring. There is a small screw on the bobbin case that always you to adjust tension.
Consult the owner's manual. Be sure to always RAISE the presser foot when threading the upper thread.
Test the stitch. If the thread is looping under the fabric, the upper thread tension is too loose. If the bottom thread shows on the top of the fabric, the upper tension is too tight. The tension is correct when the two threads (top & bobbin) meet in the middle of the fabric.
NOTE: when you change needle/thread/fabric, the tension should be tested on a piece of the project's scrap fabric and readjusted before beginning the project. Tension is static and should be adjusted every time a project is changed. (One tension will not work for every project, so get comfortable with tweaking.) Be sure to change needles frequently (damaged needles are an inexpensive fix for a lot of sewing issues). Making sure needle/thread/fabric are compatible is very important. All About Needles
Make sure you raise the presser foot BEFORE threading the upper thread so it will seat properly in the tension disk.
The factory standard tension setting is the halfway point between the low & high numbers. Be sure you are using needle & thread that are compatible with each other and the fabric you are sewing. All About Needles
Test your stitch on the fabric you are sewing. If the upper thread is showing on the bottom of the fabric, the upper tension is too loose. If the bobbin thread is showing on the top of the fabric, the upper tension is too tight.
Ideal tension is when both upper and bobbin threads meet in the middle of the fabric. The tension will need adjusting anytime you change fabric weight, needle size, and thread weight.
sergers the most frustrating machines. Every time you change fabrics you go through a tension adjusting phase.
First make sure you have threaded the machine in the proper order. upper looper, lower looper, then needles from right to left. Always thread any machine while the presser foot lever is in the UP position.
If you ever break a thread... you MUST pull all threads and rethread using the proper order.
Ok that's out of the way. Pull all your threads and get out several pieces of the same fabric scrap. Thread each pathway with a different color. This will help you determine which thread is giving you fits. Sew a test strip. Which thread is loose? tighten/loosen that tension. Keep doing this until you have a well balance seam. Then clip the colored threads starting with the upper looper thread, tie off to your proper color for your seam pull the thread through and up through the throat plate. proceed in this manner with lower looper, right needle, left needle. Sew a test seam.
1. Make sure your needle is correct for the fabric. Go buy some good needles in several sizes. You'll need a 90 for jeans, rounded points for fine fabrics... get a few sizes. Your manual should provided you with clues to the right needle for the fabrics. (BTW... there really is no such thing as a Universal Needle... toss it.)
2. Re-read your manual and carefully follow the instructions on threading the bobbin and the upper thread...
3. Check your tension on the upper thread... it is too loose for the application. The tension on the bottom thread is handled by a spring on your bobbin case or race. If you do not have that threaded properly you'll have problems. Same with the direction the bobbin turns... have in it backwards... problems.
Barring all these things... It might be time for a qualified Singer repair person to look at it. Sadly Singer has seriously lowered it's standards in the last 20 years.
To correct loose stitches, try the following: (1) Balance the thread tension. If the stitches are loose on top of the fabric, decrease the tension to the next lower number. If they are loose on the underside set the tension to the next higher number. (2) Make sure the needle/upper thread follows the threading path. (3) Check to see that the bobbin case is threaded properly. (4) Use a different size needle. For fine fabrics, use a smaller needle (size 9, 11); medium-weight fabrics require a size 14 or 16. And use a size 18 or "Denim" needle for heavy corduroy or denim.
How to Thread Juki MO-134 Serger from watching lady at Lyles.
Turn upper blade up. Push in first then turn up.It makes threading easier.
Blue Thread upper looper first.
Pull thread through tension knob. Don'tjust lay it there. (She thought that is what I must have done)
Orange Thread lower looper next.
Pull thread through tension knob as inthreading upper looper.
Adjust lower looper so it is right nextto upper looper so that their points are almost together and directly belowsewing needles. Lower looper will be in front of upper looper (I believe).
With tread from upper looper pulledback, slightly lift lower looper above upper looper and thread. I think this isright.
Pull thread back with other thread.
Tension is the key. Remember that.
Yellow: Thread left needle first.Remember tension. Pull thread through curled wire on left side of needle arm.
Green: Thread right needle. Rememberabout tension. Pull thread through curled wire on right side of needle arm.
Note: Before sewing turn the wheel tomake sure the stitches are going together correctly.
#14 needle is way big for cotton napkin scrap. a #10 is good for most lightweight fabric. #14 is for sewing denim or levis, like that.
the tension problems on almost all machines regardless of price usually fall on the upper tension. the lower bobbin tension is factory set and it's rare you should ever need to mess with it.
if you have a drop in bobbin (top loading), tighten the adjustment screw all the way and then back it off 1/4 turn. if your machine uses a shuttle bobbin, tighten the adjustment screw all the way and then back it off in 1/4-turn increments until you can hold it in the air like a yo-yo and cause to bobbin case to fall slightly dipping your hand.
A dull needle and stitch length will also mess up your stitch. The idea is to narrow the problem down to one thing and one thing only -- UPPER THREAD TENSION.
So, if you have the right size needle for the job, with the right thread, and if your stitch length selection is correct (usually between 2 and 3 or 8-to-10 stitches per inch, the problem should be with your upper thread tension.
An easy way to fix this then is to remember: Loops on top, upper tension drop. Loops below, upper tension grow. If you get loops on top of your work, lower (drop) your upper thread tension to a lower number. If you get loops on the bottom, raise the upper thread tension.
Different stitches on the same machine will require different upper thread tension settings. Don't be afraid of it. Just remember the pneumonic: loops on top, tension drop, loops below, tension grow -- referring to upper thread tension.