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1. The top loading bobbin cases have small brackets to keep them from turning or moving up or down.
2. Adjust brackets with small screwdriver. Allow enough room for thread to flow through.
3. Rotate hand wheel both directions to make sure the bobbin case doesn't move around. Also, watch the thread to see if it is flowing across the top of the bobbin case.
4. You may need to slow down movement of your "free motion". Also, make sure you are using the right pressure foot.
I don't know your model but my Janome 6500 has a bobbin case held in by magnet on the underside and it will dislodge and move if there is a jam up. This then prevents it from forming stitches correctly. You need to lift out the bobbin case and put it back into position. With mine, when it has moved, the needle then strikes part of the case when it comes down. This often results in a burr in the plastic which then causes the thread to catch again even when the case is back in correct position.
There should be two marks, one on the case and one on the outside to align it to.
this is my bobbin case, and the cut away part on lower part of the image is the bit that goes into the machine away from you.
Is the knob on the side, where you loosen the needle to rewind the bobbin, tightened? Also, there may be some threads in the bobbin case messing things up. Unplug the machine if you are checking the bobbin case.
try rethreading the machine top & bobbin change the needle--flat side to the back of the machine, make sure the needle is the right one for the fabric being sewed clean under the needle plate & in the bobbin area for lint or theads
if there is a thread in the hook area try taking a pair of needle nose pliers to try & get the thread out, if that doesn't work then you might think about taking the machine to a sewing machine shop to have the machine checked since the needle will not go up & down & handwheel won't move
Try http://www.fixsewingmachine. com
I also suggest that you clean bobbin case. Now, when needle is "stuck", this requires patience and care in "jiggling" the hand wheel to and fro until needle point begins to clear the jammed area. Carefully snip one thread that moves up under needle and jiggle hand wheel by carefully turning hand wheel toward you to see if you can move the take-up lever all the way up to the UP position. Look at bobbin case area and remove bobbin. Cut bobbin thread and remove bobbin case. Sweep gently with brush underneath case and carefully, gently sweep over the feed dogs, poking very ends of brush bristles into "teeth" area to remove lint, fuzz ball/s, and any loose thread/s.
Raise presser foot, remove (possibly bent) needle. Insert new needle of appropriate size for fabric weight. Make sure needle pushed all the way up into needle bar groove, at side to back. Keep presser foot RAISED while rethreading. This allows thread to locate tension discs, and HOLD THREAD TAUT.
Replace bobbin, making sure thread is EVENLY distributed on it. Imablanced bobbins cause jams, and bobbins with burrs and scratches can real havoc as well as the hook part of the shuttle where the bobbin fits. Smooth such areas with emery cloth carefully, ever so gently.
Hope my suggestions are a solution for you.
Upper thread breaks
1.the needle may be bent or damaged--try rolling the needle on a flat surface to see if it's bent or not
Or the needle could be in backwards
Correct needle insertion
Correct needle insertion is mandatory for proper use of sewing machine.
Raise the needle bar to the highest point, then loosen the clamp screw to remove the old needle, place the new needle in the clamp with the flat side to the back of the machine or if using a round needle--the groove in the needle should face away from the shaft.
Push the needle all the way up to the stop or as far as it will go, then tighten the needle clamp screw
2.upper tension may be to tight--try 3 to 5
3.thread may be hanging up in bobbin case--check area for loose threads or lint
Lower thread breaks
The most probable cause of lower thread breaking is improperly wound bobbin
1.always start with a empty bobbin
Never wind one color over the other
2.choose thread that is identical in color & type as the one to be used for upper threading
3.wind the bobbin evenly across & in layers
4.don't wind the bobbin so full that it would be tight & hard to insert into bobbin case
6.lint built up in the bobbin case--frequent cleanings will eliminate this problem, the more often you use the sewing machine the more often it needs to be cleaned
7.thread catching on the bobbin spring or latch on bobbin case, check to see that the bobbin is inserted completely & correctly, & that you are using the right kind of bobbin
for the top & bobbin thread keep thread tails of 3 to 6 inches long pulled behind the needle before you start sewing
yes,sometimes the thread will get caught on the spool, you might think about getting a extra holder that sets behind the machine to hold those spool's that the thread get caught on, that's what I did.
The "race" on your machine needs adjusting. Remove the bobbin cover, bobbin, & case. What you have left is the race, it moves when you turn the large wheel on the top right of machine. The needle also moves up and down. There is a hook on the race that catches the needle thread. Try moving the race to the line up with the needle. It may take a couple of trys but it should do the trick. Also clean any threads that may be caught on or arround the race. Hope this helps!