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Because it's not supposed to. The LCD on the D40 is for menus, shooting info, and image review. It takes pictures the same way SLRs have done for half a century, allowing you to view and frame through the viewfinder. Only more recent dSLRs (and not all of them) have the Live View feature allowing you to use the LCD instead of the viewfinder.
If your LCD screen works normally as a viewfinder and lets you review photos then your shutter is likely stuck in the closed position. If the display is black in all modes your LCD display is bad. Unfortunately, there is no safe DIY fix for either problem. The camera will require professional repair.
I'd take it to a "good' repair station for that. It may not be in the viewfinder , but on the sensor, and that is very touchy. When I bought mine, I put the zoom lens on and have never taken it off cause of dust.
Hi. No you can't shoot by viewing the LCD, only by using the eye-level viewfinder. Some SLR cameras have "live-view", which lets you use either the eye-level finder or the LCD. It really isn't a very good method of shooting with an SLR, as you first have to lock the mirror up, compose your shot, then drop the mirror back down. Using the eye-level finder also blocks out the bright light that makes the LCD difficult to use in sunlight. Hope this helps answer your question.
The shutter remains closed on a DSLR until you take a picture. There is no way to preview an image that does not exist yet.
Being stuck with the tiny viewfinder as earlier cameras had is a good thing. Holding a camera out from your body will give mixed results due to your movements. You will get better results with the traditional method