The Bag must be blocking the port it connects to. Remove the bag and close it up. Test it again with no bag in it. If you have suction now, the bag is blocking the port. Maybe it is the wrong type, or installed wrong.
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If it's been over a year since you've replaced the belt that is the first place to start. Stretch belts lose elasticity and will still turn the brush roll but when the brush roll is lowered to the carpet it may not turn fast enough to pick up properly. If you have good suction at the end of the hose check to make sure there is not an obstruction in the tube where the hose goes into the bottom of the vacuum to the brush roll. Make sure your filters are replaced at least once per year and the bag is not full or has a lot of fine powder dust in it which can clog the bag.
perhaps there is something stuck in the vacuum. Look where the hose fits in. There is obvioulsy no blockage in the hose because you have suction. Do the power brushes spin on the vacuum?? Take the bag off, and inspect the area the bag fits in for blockage.
you might have a clog, to try and unclog the lines, you need to unplug the unit, and remove the bag compartment. Then take a shop vac using the hose attachment hold it into the attachment door where there is low suction and try to draw the clog out the way it went in.
Assuming the unit (motor) runs ok and since it used, you may need to disassemble it and check the suction right at the motor. Sometimes there is a filter screen in front of it that can plug. The motor impeller could be partially obstructed or dirty, reducing the vacuum force. The bag should be the correct one for the unit or suction can be lost if it doesn't fit correctly.
In reply to the problem you have about the hose not staying attached very well, we had this problem years ago with one of our old cylinder vacs. Sometimes after several years of the hose connector being rotated to attach/remove it from the machine, the lugs that lock it into the hole can wear down or become mis-shapen as they are only made of plastic.
I have a UK model Hoover Portapower and luckily have never had this problem as I hardly remove the hose at all (except when emptying the bag). If you remove the hose from the machine and have a look at the connecting part of the hose where it attaches to the machine, there should be two lugs/clips either side of it. If these lugs look a bit mis-shapen or the plastic on them looks worn, then the hose will not fit the two slots either side of the hole on the inlet fully hence the hose being loose. The only way to cure this problem is either put a little bit of electrical tape on them which will stick the hose to the machine better as that's what we did. Overall though you are probably best replacing the hose for a new one if this is the case as these lugs will then be the correct shape to fit the machine properly on a brand new one :)
At the top of your wand, do you have a plastic swivel that cover a hole in the wand? This is for when you are cleaning curtains, and if that is open, or cracked you will loose suction there... also check your hose for cracks, or breaks. If it were in the shop I would put a gauge on it... normal suction is about 80-95 inches of water lift at the end of the hose. Once you have check each section of the hose, and wand, check the housing for cracks, a missing gasket (Very Good Reason For Lack Of Suction) As to your Filter, how long have you used that one filter, you can clean them for a while, but once a paper filter gets full of FINE dust you won't get it all out, you will have to replace the filter itself at that point. I hope this was helpful.
Make sure you have a good bag installed in the vacuum and the door is properly in place. Remove the attachment hose from the bag chamber and turn the machine on. You should have good suction coming from the hose inlet. If you don't you have a problem in the bag chamber. Bad bag, door is not on correct, door is defective, dirty secondary filter.
Connect the hose back to the machine and pull the other end out from the bottom, and turn the machine on. You should have good suction there. If you don't you have a clog or hole in the attachment hose and it needs to be unclogged or relplaced.
Reconnect the to the bottom. Flip the mahine upside down. Take the screws out of the bottom plate and remove. Remove the brushroller and belt. Turn the machine on and you should have suction at the inlet coming off the brushhousing. It you don't, then you have a clog in the nozzle hose and it needs to be removed. It will probably be more accessable from the bottom side since that is the way that it entered.
Sometimes a suction problem can be confused with an brush problem. The belts on that machine should be replaced every 6 to 8 months because they will strentch and wear. This is an inexpensive maitainance that will dramatically improve its function. Part Numbers are 38528-035 and 38528-034
Either the hose has a clog, or the inlet down by the belt is clogged. Is there suction at the end of the hose, if not then it is clogged. If there is suction, then it has to be clogged down below by the brush roll, check that inlet. There also is a filter at the bottom where the dirt cup (and bag) is, check it also.
Could be bad filters, is there suction at the end of the hose. That will tell you which direction to start looking. If no suction at hose end, then filters could be the problem. If you have suction, then the problem is down lower, dirt inlet is clogged, if belt has never been changed, then I am sure it has stretch to the point that under load it doesn't turn like it should. Could even be that although the motor is running, it may be running at a slower speed, in which case it would have to be replaced.
First, check to see if there is suction without the hose on the base. If not, and there is no blockage, the problem is likely a damaged impeller, the small fan that makes the suction. That will have to be replaced.