Try to clean the fans inside. No need to open case. Use an air blower to blow away dirt from the fans and heatsinks.
If that don't solve your problem, the cpu heat-sing or heat-pipe may be not seated properly. You may need professional assistance.
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This is a common issue with laptops. Quite often, however, the problem is not the fan, but the heatsink that the fan blows the air over to remove heat from the processor. People tend to lay their laptops on their laps, beds, sofas, and carpets when they use them. This sucks massive amounts of dust, hair, lint, etc. into the cooling passages and clogs the heatsink. Many laptops are now made so that the heatsink can be removed for cleaning. If the heatsink is clogged, the fan cannot cool the processor and the processor overheats. This causes the cutting out for processor protection.
When the CPUoverheats it goes into thermal shutdown and will not boot up again until theCPU has cooled down. The heat sink may be clogged with dust, which causes the CPU to overheat byreducing air circulation through the heat sink.If you are notusing your laptop on a flat surface, it may be obstructing the cooling vents onthe bottom of the laptop. Your laptop fanmay be faulty and not spinning freely, in this case replace the fan. Check the fan and heat sink assembly and remove the dust, loosen the dust anduse a can of compressed air to clear away the dust.A laptop fanassisted cooling pad may solve your problem
Possible that the ventilation fan is blocked ,the filters are clogged. You will need to remove the covers to the ventilation fan, remove off all dirt-- do not place on the bed to cut off flow.
If the fan does not cool due to this clogging then the processor will heat up and cut off.
The reason is because when the laptop is placed on the bed the cooling vents are blocked and the CPU overheats and shuts down. When the laptop os placed on a flat surface there is sufficient clearance between the bottom of the laptop and the flat surface of the desk to provide sufficient air circulation.
If you wish to use the laptop in bed then place the laptop on a flat surface and not let the bed clothes cover the laptop's cooling vents.
Yes you could try a laptop "Cooler Pad" that may help, either that or go into the BIOS and set the temperature "Cut Off" point higher by say 10 - 20 degrees. Ensure the laptop has an air flow all around it at all times. Clean out your exhaust port, of dust etc.
Replace the charger, it probably overheat and died. Try with a voltmeter to measure the output power (usually aroud 19 V DC) Then the tricky part, try to power something else with the charger , something who might work with the output power (a car light bulb for exemple). If it does work then you have a short cut on the motherboard of your laptop if it's the case replace the laptop, it's the hell of a job to repair the motherboard... good luck