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How do atom the smallest particles of matter form

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Hi,

The current view is that atoms are made up of protons and neutrons (which in turn are made up of quarks and gluons) and electrons. The protons and neutrons are at the central core called the nucleus, and the electrons revolve around it, being held in orbit by the electromagnetic force between the negatively charged electrons and the positively charged protons in the central nucleus. It is very much like the solar system with the sun at the center and the planets revolving around it. They were formed right after the "Big Bang" when our known universe originated from pure energy some billions of years ago. The energy was converted to the elementary particles (quarks, gluons, leptons etc...) from which protons and neutrons were formed. From these, atoms of different elements were produced.

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Posted on Oct 08, 2009

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Wikipedia has a good explaination. It also has pictures. Make sure you list wikipedia as a source of information.

Posted on Oct 08, 2009

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Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space. According to modern physics, matter consists of various types of particles, each with mass and size.
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I hope you find it very helpful. Best regards.

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What is a 12 particles inside the protton


Hi,
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There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.[4] Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas charm, strange, top, and bottom quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators).

A lepton is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.[1] The best known of all leptons is the electron which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. There are six types of leptons, known as flavours, forming three generations.[2] The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electrons (e
) and electron neutrinos
e
); the second is the muonic leptons, comprising muons
) and muon neutrinos
μ
); and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising taus
) and tau neutrinos
τ
). Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons. The heavier muons and taus will rapidly change into electrons through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Thus electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and those carried out in particle accelerators).



Particle Generations Leptons First generation Second generation Third generation Name Symbol Name Symbol Name Symbol electron e
muon μ
tau τ
electron neutrino ν
e
muon neutrino ν
μ
tau neutrino ν
τ
Quarks First generation Second generation Third generation up quark u charm quark c top quark t down quark d strange quark s bottom quark b
Hope this helps. If it does, pleaseaccept and rate the solution! Contact me with any more questions you may have.Thanks for using FixYa!

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Define physics


Hi.

(Physics / General Physics) the branch of science concerned with the properties of matter and energy and the relationships between them. It is based on mathematics and traditionally includes mechanics, optics, electricity and magnetism, acoustics, and heat. Modern physics, based on quantum theory, includes atomic, nuclear, particle, and solid-state studies. It can also embrace applied fields such as geophysics and meteorology.



Regards.

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Ionization


Please restate as a question. Do you mean "what is ionisation?" If so: ionisation is the physical process of converting a molecule or atom into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions, to form a charged form of the atom or molecule.

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When was the atom discovered?


In the 5th cent. B.C. the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus proposed that matter was made up of tiny, indivisible particles they called atom, or in Greek "a-tomos". John Dalton was the first who introduced the idea of atom. Atom, the very word, means inseparable or indivisible. Based on that idea in chemistry many laws have been stated such as, law of coservation of mass, law of multiple proportions etc



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What is the electron dot diagram for nitrogen


The electron-dot structure (also known as the "Lewis dot structure") for N is shown below:dubblea_6.jpg The red dots represent electrons that comprise the atom's 5 valence electrons. Recall that the valence (outermost) electrons are those that are involved in chemical reactions of bonding. The rule you should apply to drawing this electron dot structure is to first draw (or imagine) a rectangle around the atom's symbol, letting the rectangle represent the atom's core electrons (not shown), those within the atom's inner (s) shell. Then place one electron on each side. That leaves the remaining electron to be placed on one of the already occupied sides to give the electron pair.

It doesn't matter what side you place this 5th electron, because the final result is the pattern shown above, 3 single dots and one pair of dots, which neatly reveals the bonding power* of N (3) - and the existence of the one electron pair, which predicts special types of reactivity you will probably appreciate in more advanced topics of this element's behavior.

*The single electrons are more reactive than the electron pair, and will readily form bonds with other atoms, such as H. This allows you to predict that N and H atoms will combine to form NH3.

How do you know there are 5 valence electrons? For the answer, refer to the following partial image of the Periodic Table of the Elements I drew using Word and SnagIT software:
dubblea.gif
Notice the number-letter labels above each column ("group") of elements, for example "5A." The letter A indicates the groups of "representative" elements, the most common elements studied in general chemistry courses. The numbers before the "A" represents the number of valence electrons surrounding each element's atoms. For example, hydrogen has one valence electron, nitrogen has 5 valence electrons, and oxygen has 6 valence electrons.

Using the rules described above for drawing electron-dot structures, how many single dots and double dots should be drawn around H? Around O? Can you predict the bonding power of each of these atoms? What molecular compounds do you predict would be formed from the reaction of H and H? What molecular compound do you predict would form between combining H atoms and O?

Hints:
Reactions tend to occur that cause the single electrons (dots) to pair up. This occurs because paired electrons are much more stable than single electrons. A strong driving force for a reaction is the going from a less stable state to a more stable state. Hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules (diatomic molecules). H and O atoms combine to form dihydrogen oxide, also known as water!

Summary:
  • A very simple set of rules allows you to predict the electron dot structures of the representative elements.
  • The electron dot structures are very useful, because they can allow you to predict the bonding power of each representative element.
  • They are also useful in guiding your prediction of the compositions of molecules that can form during reactions between their atoms (that is, how many of each element in the molecule).
  • In more advanced topics you will also be able to use electron-dot structures to predict the shapes (or geometry) of molecules, including bond angles!
  • So, learning the skill of drawing electron-dot structures is very important to mastering chemistry!

###

Nov 04, 2010 | Scientific Explorer My First Chemistry Kit

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