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there are two thread tensioners on a machine
the first one is on the front of the machine for the top thread
the second is the small screw that holds the small flat spring under which you pull the thread after you put the bobbin in the holder
as you put the bobbin in the holder you have to pull the thread around the side until it slips into a small slot then under a retainer spring
that spring is adjustable by that small screw
the amount of tension added or released by that screw is minute so as little as 1/8 turn has a big bearing on the amount of tension of the bobbin thread so turn it just a small bit at a time until the thread tension is correct
the tension screw for the bobbin thread is on the side of the bobbin carrier
that bit that you put the full bobbin in to clip it back onto the machine
t there is a small spring plate that you pull the bobbin thread under when you put the bobbin back in the carrier and you pull the thread down a slot and under that spring plate
the tension is adjusted by that small screw that holds that plate on
only very small adjustments make a lot of difference to the tension
don't touch any other screws or you will alter the needle /hook timing and that will put you a pickle
Hi. I think I know what you mean--the top thread looks like it's just laying across the fabric, right? This is because either the top tension is too tight or the bobbin tension is too loose. (Either condition will look the same.) Try it with a different color thread in the bobbin, you can easily see the bobbin thread cross the top thread on top of your fabric. Here's what to do:
since you should hardly ever need to adjust the bobbin thread, we'll start with the top thread.
Make sure you thread the machine with the pressure foot UP (opens the tension disks) but adjust the tension with the pressure foot DOWN (closes them so they will adjust). Use a size 12 or 14 needle and good-quality thread (it does make a huge difference!)
With different color thread on top and in the bobbin, stitch an inch or so and check the stitch.
Slightly loosen the top tension (move the dial so the numbers go lower). Don't move it a lot, just a little bit.
Stitch again and check. Repeat this process, stitching, checking, and gradually adjusting the tension dial until you don't see any of the bobbin thread on the top (or very, very little) and don't see any of the top thread on the underside (or very, very little).
IF this doesn't get the balance adjusted, then you'll have to play with the bobbin tension. (But generally, once this is set, you shouldn't have to mess with it again.)
There is a tiny screw on the bobbin carrier that tightens or loosens a very small metal strip (where the thread exits the carrier). To tighten the bobbin tension, screw this just a tiny bit to the right. (Turn it to the right to loosen the screw, to the left to tighten it.) Again, just make a small adjustment each time and recheck your stitches.
Few things about sewing are more frustrating than stitches that aren't balanced!
If you are having problems with the thread on the underside of the fabric, that is usually the upper tension. Check to make sure that it is threaded correctly. If so, make sure that the thread is inside the tension disc and that there are no pieces of thread caught in the tension. If it is threaded and there are no thread caught up in the tension assembly, adjust your tension dial to a slightly higher number. Do this until you get a good stitch.
Check your tension disks, with your presser foot up, and the tension dial on zero. Sometimes a piece of cotton breaks off between the tension disks and then prevents the disks to work properly. Also make sure when you thread the machine, the thread does go through the disks and over the take up lever. After you threaded the machine, before putting the thread through the eye of the needle, lower the presser foot and while pulling on the thread with your left hand, increase the tension with your right hand. Do it slowly and you should feel in difference in tension. If this is the case, your machine should work fine. Good Luck!
Useful to check the spool and bobbin threading. If either is not threaded correctly, the fabric will pucker/thread will break/loops will appear on either side of the fabric. Easiest to do with machine manual open so as to follow the instructions. Easiest to check your threading each time you change threads by running a test seam on scrap fabric (I keep a large piece of scrap fabric folded in half just for this). More often than not, the problem is with threading. Check threading before you change tension dial or ajust screws. Otherwise, you'll have changed the tension and may still have threading problems. Good luck.
If it was sewing correctly BEFORE the needle break...why did the needle break in the first place?...and what fixes did you make?
If it sewed properly...what changed?
Cut your upper thread close to the spool...make sure the presser foot is raised and pull the cut off thread section through/out of the machine from the needle area (sewing direction...do not pull the thread backwards!)
Clean out the bobbin area...remove any traces of lint or pieces of thread...look for any broken off needle pieces... brush the bobbin area out....then add a drop of sewing machine oil (but only if your manual says to oil that area).
Remove the needle plate to expose the feed dogs...brush/clean out that area too and add a drop of sewing machine oil...then secure the needle plate back on.
Replace the needle...do it again...yup...some needles arrive bad from the factory. Make sure the needle is inserted and positioned properly. Then thread the machine WITH the presser foot in raised position. (The thread needs to get seated into the upper tensions.)
..with the.presser foot down...thread the new needle.
Oh...and use the correct needle for the thread. (a universal 80/12 is standard).
Thread can cause issues too. Try a different bobbin, or maybe a different spool of thread to see if that makes a difference.