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To make sure it isn't anything else, pull all cards, and drive cables from the board so the only thing left connected is the power connectors to the motherboard, the speaker, and the power button. Pull all the ram cards.
Now power up the computer. If you hear a series of beeps then the computer recognizes there is no ram on the board. At this point I would take the power supply out and have it tested. If you do not hear a series of beeps I would still have the power supply tested as it could be the 12v is fine but the 5 and 3.3 volt side is bad.
If power supply tests good then I would replace both the motherboard and processor. You take a risk of burning a new processor if it's the motherboard causing the problems.
1. Could be as simple as not having the Power Switch on the right jumper...double check.
2. The board will power up with nothing hooked to it... just power, CPU, MEM... disconect everything to just to get the board up to the bios.
3. Make sure PS is securly connected to the MB.
4. Check Jumper on the Board to make sure the Test Jumpers are not set
5. Memory is seated correctly... if you pull them out the board will start and beep...
1. Check that the cpu fan is properly connected to the correct port marked CPU FAN.
2. Make sure the power cables are connected correctly to the motherboard.
3. Test the button switch with a multi-tester to make sure that it tests good.
4. Make sure the power switch is connected to the correct pins on the motherboard.
5. With the computer off pop the cr2032 battery out and pop it back in after a few minutes.
6. Test the power supply with either another motherboard or a power supply tester.
7. Test the motherboard with another power supply.
8. If all else fails replace the motherboard I have had a bad one from time to time even out of the box, and if you have a spare cpu you may want to test with that also. Cpu's hardly ever go bad I think I have had two go bad ever, not counting power surges and storm damage.
I had a similar situation with a work computer; the power supply always tested good. A wiser and more experienced computer guru ordered a new power supply. He gave it to me told me to install it, I did and was laughing the whole time. Well it in fact was the power supply. Reason, power supplies are funny like that, they may test good under ideal conditions which is a minimum load put on the unit (enough to boot your system). They are not tested with the stresses of maintaining all your fans, hard drives, mother board, video card, monitor, CD drives, mouse, and keyboard. Its when those loads are applied is when the unit either surges or it is faulty and cannot maintain. First try finding some way to test that suspected bad circuit. If that's not it I would try replacing the power supply, that MAY NOT be your problem but it is certainly CHEAPER than replacing your processor and/or mother board. You could also have a hard drive problem; most drives have self testing features that are partitioned separate from the rest of drive. You can also try plugging your drive into a good computer and see if it boots.
I'll warn you though issues such as yours can take you down a costly road trying to trouble shoot. The components you are thinking of replacing pretty much will give you a brand new computer.
Motherboard is tested using a tester like this one:PCI Test Card, PC Analyzer, Motherboard Test Card Ram and CPU (CPU sometimes get damaged) are usually not damaged by this kind of problems, they can be tested mounting them on a working motherboard. For the RAM we also use a RAM tester that costs about $200.
Ensure also that the switch contacts to new motherboard are installed properly. A technician can test cabinet power switch using a multimeter, or carefully bridging with a screwdriver the switch on contacts on motherboard (do not do this unless you are sure about what you are doing)
Test the new PSU on a different socket, when a PSU blows , it may damage the main socket.
Also remember that new power supply units have two connectors. The big rectangular main one (24 pin) and a smaller 4 pins squared one.
As an home user you may not have access to testing equipment, therefore my suggestion is.
Ensure you are using the right PSU.
Ensure that the motherboard is connected to power switch.
Test the new PSU with a multimeter.
Examine the motherboard for blown or leaking components and burnt areas.
If you do not find anything, but the mainboard is still not working, then buy a motherboard-cpu bundle compatible with the PSU that you bought and assemble a new system inside the old cabinet.
In addition to your power supply, your motherboard was also probably affected by the surge. Most surges do damage beyond the motherboard. The power supply is still supplying power to it, which is why the fan runs and power lights come on, but it probably isn't doing much more then that. You might want to start looking for a motherboard replacement. The best and most inexpensive place is www.tigerdirect.com.
You can test the power button. Remove the wires from the power on pins on the motherboard. Momentarily jump the two pins with a small screwdriver. If the computer starts the power button is bad. If it still doesn't start then something else is wrong. Did you test the memory? Also do all of the fans work, especially the CPU fan? It can't hurt to test with the other PSU. You know the HDD is good. Test one piece of hardware at a time and hopefully you will find the problem.
Either the new power supply you purchased is not functioning correctly. But, assuming it is now that you are getting some form of power to your PC, it is very likely the motherboard. Whatever fried your old power supply (or it could have just been the power supply itself) most likely fried your motherboard in the process. Probably not the CPU since the MB can't even post.