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I am not sure as to your machine, are you saying a "brother" machine? If your tension is set, say on 6 and it is too tight, turn the dial one more number......to a 7 or to a five and then check again. Also, I would rethread the machine and also take the bobbin out and then put it back into the machine. A lot of times, the bobbin isn't threaded into the machine correctly and it bunches up. Also, you can't use certain thick thread on some machines.
here are my suggestions
change needle--make sure needle is correct one for fabric and thread
adjust top thread tension
rethread top thread using every thread guide
make sure bobbin is turned correctly in the bobbin case
Loops appear on the surface (top side) of the fabric? Reduce the tension by turning the upper tension control dial to a lower number. If the loops still appear on the surface of the fabric after you adjust the upper tension, the bobbin thread may be too loose. In this case, turn the screw clockwise, being careful not to over-tighten the screw, approximately 30-45 degrees to increase bobbin tension. After you adjust the bobbin thread, adjust the upper thread to match the bobbin thread. Make sure you reset before your next project.
First. pull the thread out and rethread the machine with the presser foot in the UP position. Set your tension dial to about 3 or 4. Do a test seam. Remember, if you have loops on the bottom, the top thread tension needs tightened. If you have loops on the top the top thread tension needs loosened.
Also on this machine make sure the bobbin is loaded in the carrier when holding the bobbin facing you should spool off the bobbin in such a way as to make the bobbin spin clock wise. If you load it backwards it will mess up tension, fray the thread and generally make you go bonkers trying to figure out what's wrong.
Here's a helpful page... http://www.sewusa.com/Threading_Diagrams/Threading_Pages/Brother_Sewing_Machine_Threading/brother_VX_1010_1020_threading_diagram.htm
no, more likely your top tension is too loose causing the loops on the underside of your fabric, loops on top would be bobbin too loose. raise presser foot and rethread top thdead pulling thread into tension fully. set top tension dial to 5 and test sew. if still looping underneath try tightening top tension by turning dial up to 6. but usually top tension should only need minor adjustment tweeks. you can test top tension by lowering pressure foot to engage tension and holding thread just above needle thread guide, pulling thread downwards . there should be resistence on it to your pull. if you cant feel any then tension device may be faulty, and require service.
A sewing machine operator can often help themselves when their machine does not operate properly. Here are some simple instructions, which if properly used can save time and mechanics service calls. TROUBLE;UPPER THREAD KEEPS BREAKING; This could be trouble;================Do this; 1.Top tension to tight================loosen tension 1 turn 2.Machine improperly threaded=========check threading 3.Thread twisted on guide post========" 4.Thread twisted out of tension=======" 5.Take up spring bent or broken=======Check action of spring 6.Thread jumped off pull off finger===Check threading 7.Needle bent or burred===============new needle 8.Bad cone of thread==================try another cone TROUBLE;LOWER THREAD KEEPS BREAKING; 1.Bobbin tensionspring to tight=======Loosen tension slightly 2.Bobbin threaded wrong===============check threading 3.Bobbin wound to tight or uneven=====try new bobbin 4.lint or thread on bobbin case=======clean inside case 5.Lint or thread inside hook==========clean inside hook 6.Bobbin case nicked bent or burred===check/change case TROUBLE;MACHINE STARTED SKIPPING STITCHES; 1.Needle bent or burred===============change 2.Needle set in crooked===============Check 3.Thread jumped off take up spring====check threading 4.Thread jumped off pull off finger===check threading TROUBLE STITCHES SHOWING LOOPS; 1.Forming loops on top of cloth=======Tighten bobbin tension ======================================or loosen top tension. 2.forming loops on bottom of cloth====Tighten top tension 3.Bobbin placed in case incorrectly===remove and replace 4.Bobbin thread slipped from under====check threading of tension===============================bobbin case 5.Lint or thread in top tension=======clean between tension discs
Check your top tension dial setting is on 5, as this sounds like the thread is not in tension fully so is looping up around the rotary hook and not being held back by the tension device. Is the pressure foot lowered (this turns the tension on) fully and is the thread through the tension discs correctly. Lower the pressure foot and pull the top thread from below the tension dial, it should feel firm to pull, if it comes out easy, its not undertension, device could be faulty and machine will need to be serviced.
Also, check that the bobbin case is fully inserted into the rotary hook in the correct position, bobbin is in and rotating the right way and thread is into the tension spring fully.
If you have the manual pull it out, and carefully check the threading up instructions and follow on your machine - it is probably one of these things causing the jamming.
Actually, it sounds like your upper tension is too loose. If the upper tension is too loose, it won't pull the bobbin thread up into the fabric properly. Check out my suggestions on Adjusting Tension and see if that helps.
Loops on the top of the fabric are usually caused by the bobbin thread not in the bobbin case tension correctly, remove the bobbin and reinstall it. You should feel a slight resistance when you pull on the bobbin thread.