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To turn free motion on their is a switch that does this. If the switch is turned on the feed dog will go under the plate and stay their. It will begin to operate again if you turn the free motion switch off.
Are you asking how to raise or lower the feed dogs? If so, there is a dial somewhere on your machine that does that. It's usually explained in the "darning" section of your manual.
If you are asking how to lengthen the stitch, that setting will increase the distance the feed dog makes with every backward/forward motion which moves the fabric through the machine faster. Look for the stitch length instruction in your manual.
If you want to actually adjust the feed dogs (ie how far up they rise, etc.), that should be done by a technician as special tools are required to set it properly.
Is the feed dog raised into sewing position and not dropped as for darning? Feed dogs need to be in the raised position in order to pull the fabric through the machine.
If the stitch length is set too short, it will cause the fabric to barely move thereby causing the machine to stitch in one place.
Raise your presser foot and gently rotate the handwheel and watch the feed dogs. Do they rise when coming to the front of the machine, move toward the back of the machine, drop down below the needle plate, and move forward to the front of the machine again? If so, the feed dogs are working properly.
If the feed dogs never rise, they are in the dropped position for darning or free motion quilting when you would move the fabric manually.
If, on the other hand, the feed dogs do not move at all, then they are seized and you should probably get your machine serviced.
under the foot around the needle, there should be two rows of what look like teeth, these pull the material through and there will be an adjustment mechanism on the machine. Try leaving the foot up while you run the machine, you should see the teeth going up and down; if they are it is most likely just a case of setting up the amount of pull. I think it is adjusted with the wheel that sets the length of stitch.
Check that the stitch length is set to make ~10 stitches per inch. This stitch is long enough to actually move the fabric. If the stitch length is set too short, the fabric will stay barely move and the needle will stitch almost in place.
Check that the feed dogs have not been dropped for darning or free motion quilting. In this position, they do not rise and are, therefore, unable to contact the fabric to pull it through the machine.
With the presser foot raised and using no fabric, hand rotate the handwheel and watch if the feed dogs actually drop down below the needle plate, move toward the front of the machine, then rise above the needle plate, and move toward the back of the machine. If the feed dogs are moving in this manner, then they are functioning properly.
Is there lint or gunk stuck in the feed dogs? This will restrict the ability of the feed dogs to grip the fabric.
Are the feed dogs worn? Are the little teeth worn so there are no sharp points?
What type fabric are you using? If it is very light-weight or slick fabric, the feed dogs will have a difficult time gripping the fabric. Most machines have a presser foot pressure adjustment so that more pressure is applied between the presser foot and the feed dogs. Consult your Owner's Manual. The adjustment is usually a dial either on the left side of the machine, on the front of the machine located above the needle bar, or on vintage machines it is usually a skrew located under the top lid above the needle bar.
Are the feed dogs in the raised position and not dropped for darning for free motion quilting? Is the stitch length set to somewhere between 10 to 12 stitches per inch? If the stitch length is set too close to zero, the feed dogs will barely move the fabric causing it sew in the same spot.
Either something is broken or the feed dogs have been lowered. This is done when using things such as automatic buttonholers and such. There is a level, usually under the plate, that lowers the feed dogs.
I was having trouble with this too, but found more help online...you have to switch the dog feed back to 'up'....then turn the needle wheel toward you....the feed dog should snap back into place :) Hope this helps :D