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It could be a variety of things. Be sure you are using a brand new sharp needle (try a topstitch, embroidery, or microtex needle on woven cotton). Be sure the needle eye is large enough to accommodate the thread weight. Different needles have a different scarf (the groove that is on the back of the needle that runs up from the needle eye). A larger scarf will protect the thread and keep the thread from hanging up on the fabric when the needle is withdrawn from the fabric.
Also, the upper tension may be too loose if it is still showing loops under the fabric.
There are several reasons to this. First, your top thread is not at equal/adequate tension and may be routed improperly. Second, your bottom thread has very little tension due to either improper shuttle adjustment and/or missing screw at the tension plate. Additionally it could be caused by excessive accumulation of fluff, which prevents tension mechanism from doing its job. In summary I suggest checking top and bottom threads for proper routing and tension in accordance with machine manufacturer's specs. I am almost positive that you will find a problem there. Good luck and report back if needed.
The top thread breaks
1. the needle thread is not threaded properly
2. The needle thread tension is to tight
3. The needle is bent or blunt
4. The needle is incorrectly inserted
5. The needle thread & the bobbin thread are not set under the presser foot when starting to sew
6. the threads were not drawn to the rear after sewing
7. The thread is either to heavy or to fine for the needle
8. Try a different spool or cone of thread
Thread looping on the bottom of your fabric can be caused by little or no top tension or too much bobbin tension. Another cause is thread or lint caught in the top tension.Make sure the thread is between the tension discs and that no thread or lint is caught
This is a tension adjustment problem. It's good to use two different colors of thread, like you did. From your description, the top thread (needle thread) tension needs to be tighter. As you tighten the tension of the top thread, you'll see that the top thread pulls the bobbin thread up into the fabric so it's no longer laying loose on the bottom of the fabric.
You'll need to have the pressure foot down when you tighten the tension. Tighten it a little, sew a practice seam, check to see what the stitch looks like. Tighten it a little more, sew, check, etc etc--until both top and bottom look the same--you shouldn't see much (if any) of the bobbin thread color on top of the fabric or the top thread color on the underside.
Unthread your machine and set the tension to 4.5. rethread your machine up to the needle and then put the presser foot down. If the thread pulls hard, your machine is threaded right if it pulls easily, the thread is not thru the tension wheel correctly.
Rule of thumb:: loops on the top, problem on the bottom.
loops on the bottom, problem on the top.
Proper set of bobbins and tension set up vs. fabrics will sew you satified.Also incude regular maintenance cleaning of the feeds dogs with a brus,also the shuttle assembly need sometime to clean.Some threads and fabrics chips accumulates in the feed dogs and shuttles assembly.In setting up thread bobbins the thread should be clockwise direction as you pull out on slot coming out to the bobbins (as you shown in my inserted image manual).The loop thread should be propely in the sequence position same like in the image refer to it.If you use cotton/ polyester fabric in the begining of trial set tension dial to No.3 and stich to No. 8 to 12 any convenient to you Use needle No. 14 .Posible make a record if you are sewing different types of fabric mostly silk fabric is hard to sew adjusting to lower stich can posible sew satisfactory.
If it was sewing correctly BEFORE the needle break...why did the needle break in the first place?...and what fixes did you make?
If it sewed properly...what changed?
Cut your upper thread close to the spool...make sure the presser foot is raised and pull the cut off thread section through/out of the machine from the needle area (sewing direction...do not pull the thread backwards!)
Clean out the bobbin area...remove any traces of lint or pieces of thread...look for any broken off needle pieces... brush the bobbin area out....then add a drop of sewing machine oil (but only if your manual says to oil that area).
Remove the needle plate to expose the feed dogs...brush/clean out that area too and add a drop of sewing machine oil...then secure the needle plate back on.
Replace the needle...do it again...yup...some needles arrive bad from the factory. Make sure the needle is inserted and positioned properly. Then thread the machine WITH the presser foot in raised position. (The thread needs to get seated into the upper tensions.)
..with the.presser foot down...thread the new needle.
Oh...and use the correct needle for the thread. (a universal 80/12 is standard).
Thread can cause issues too. Try a different bobbin, or maybe a different spool of thread to see if that makes a difference.