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HINT: before you install the shuttle, make sure to place a drop of sewing machine oil around the outer edge of the shuttle and lightly spread it around the outer edge (you should do this about every time you change a bobbin). Sorry, you'll probably need to be familiar with removing and installing the shuttle. Have patience! Once you've done it a couple of times, you'll wonder why it was so difficult.
It usually helps if you can tilt the machine back about 45 degrees so it is supported by something (pillow, cushion) so you can get good visibility into the bobbin area.
Raise the needle so that the take-up bar is at its highest point.
Make sure the outer hinged door on the shuttle area is open. Inside that open door is a metal unit that is shaped like a "C". The shuttle makes up the other part of the "C". The two C's face each other and complete the circle. Grasp the shuttle by the projecting bobbin pin. (Perhaps the photo & videos will help you in placing the shuttle (you'll probably need to wiggle it around a little until it pops into place.) Once the shuttle has snapped into place and you've closed and latched the outer cover, you can install the bobbin case.
It sounds like the lower shuttle is out of place. You should be able to take out the bobbin case and unlatch the shuttle. It will probably be in 2 pieces. Clean out the dust behind it and replace the shuttle pieces. You may have to fiddle with it a little to get them back in place. Then you can test it by manually turning the wheel. Make sure the bobbin is placed into the bobbin case and that the bobbin turns in the direction that you pull the thread.
The shuttle hook is suppose to hook the needle (spool) thread and loops it around the bobbin case to form the lock stitch. Is it possible that something was adjusted without proper clearances as to allow the thread looping around the bobbin case to do so without catching up where it should pass through freely? ~<Ray>~