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Install a brand new needle (make sure it is compatible with the thread and fabric). Remove the top thread from the machine. ALWAYS RAISE the presser foot and rethread from the beginning. Verify the thread path is correct. Set the top tension to the midway point and retest your machine. Tweak the top tension until the top and bobbin threads meet in the middle of the fabric.
Check your stitch sample. The loose stitches under the fabric--are they actually top thread???? Usually,stitch problems under the fabric is a result of a top thread problem. In this case, it could be bird nesting.
Remove the top thread from the machine.
Install a brand new needle.
ALWAYS RAISE the presser foot.
Rethread from the beginning.
Look very closely at your sample stitching and determine which thread (top or bobbin) is looping and which is breaking. That will narrow down where the problem exists.
A top thread that loops and makes thread "barfs" under the fabric is generally an upper thread tension problem.
Try: Remove the top thread. ALWAYS RAISE the presser foot and rethread from the beginning. Set the upper tension to the midway point (probably will need to tweak this tension depending on your machine).
whether its bias or straight does not matter to machine. loosen the bobbin tension and put more tension on take up spring by inserting a screwdriver in the slot of the top thread tensioner. turn to right.
Symptoms like this are typically tension or threading problems. Grab some dental floss (unwaxed) completely remove the top thread. Lift the foot. Run your floss between any tension discs.
Get out your manual and make sure you thread it properly. Have the proper retention disc on the thread spindle if your machine has one. Make sure the thread is unspooling the correct way. Thread the machine with the foot up always. ...
Test sew on scrap. still breaking? Change the needle (make sure it's the right needle for the project.) Test sew. Finally check your tension and stitch length. Thicker materials typically need longer stitches. Loosen the tension a little at a time. testing between changes.
If none of those things work... check your needle throat plate and foot. There could be a burr causing the problem.
If the thread is shredding and breaking, there is an incompatibility of your needle, thread, and fabric. Could be old, bargain bin, or poor quality thread--does the thread have little "hairs" of thread lint sticking out of it--that's probably not good quality. Look for fresh, good quality thread. Try a brand new needle--a sharp if you are sewing woven fabric. Make sure the thread is not too big for the needle eye. Sometimes, a top-stitch needle or embroidery needle will work well on FMQ. (A top-stitch needle has a longer scarf which helps protect the thread during the multiple times the needle penetrates the fabric before the thread forms a stitch. Shredding means the thread is getting worn out before it forms a stitch. A piece of thread penetrates the fabric 10-20 times before it forms a stitch.) Could also be a snag somewhere that is damaging the thread.
Most FMQ instructions say the upper and bobbin tension should be the same, however, I find my machine works a bit better when the bobbin thread is just a little tighter than the upper thread. Then the bobbin thread does not "pop" up on the top of my fabric quite as much. It's probably something you will just need to experiment with in getting used to your machine.
P.S.--when threading your machine, make sure the Presser Foot is ALWAYS RAISED so the top thread will seat properly in the tension disk. Failure to do this will cause thread barfs (usually referred to as thread nests or bird nests) under your fabric. Also, before beginning your FMQ, ALWAYS PULL the bobbin thread to the top of the fabric, then hold both thread tails gently in your left hand while you slowly take the first couple of stitches.
Try this to see if it helps:
Remove top thread.
ALWAYS RAISE the presser foot and rethread from the beginning.
Start the top tension set at the midway point and then adjust.
Check that the bobbin is threaded and installed correctly.