The bottom bobbin has loose thread and no amount of changing the top tension is making it even again. I have taken the bobbin out and redone it several times. i don't know how to change tension on the bottom thread and do not have a manual
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You need to tighten the bottom and top stitches both. First, tighten the bobbin slightly. Now, tighten the top stitches the same amount of pressure as the bobbin. The attempt is to have both the bottom and top stitches exactly the same so the final stitch ends up in the center of the fabric. Observe the stitch and readjust if necessary.
Make sure the bobbin case is seated properly without turning around. If you look there is a lever that holds it down on the left side. On the right side you will notice a holder that can be adjusted to tighten or loosen the movement of the bobbin. Leave a small amount of movement though because thread has to slide between areas.
The adjustment of the top tension is normal at four. Try to take a slight pull on this and pay attention to the feel of the pull. This is the amount of pull that the bobbin case should have the tension set. It is similar to a tug of war. The objective is to set the top and bottom tensions equally.
You bobbin tension CAN be adjusted. First, thread your machine with different colors in the top and bobbin, set your top tension at its default, and run a line of straight, and then a line of zigzag stitches, and compare the results at the top and bottom. You will be adjusting your bobbin to your top tension. If the top tension looks like a straight line instead of stitching and the zigzag looks like "chicken tracks" instead of a zigzag, but the bottom looks like a zigzag, your bobbin tension is too loose.
Remove the bobbin case, and locate the straight-slot screw. There are generally two; one is a Phillips and one is straight--you want the straight one. Leave the other alone.
The rule is "lefty-loosy, righty-tighty." If your stitching displays the above symptoms, it needs to be tightened, so turn 1/4 turn to the right--no more--then test again. You will need patience, but don't turn more than that. It is easy to do, but if you don't do it systematically, you can make things worse, and very slight adjustments can alter the stitching significantly.
The tension of the top thread and bobbin thread are in a "tug of war". If the top is "winning" or too high then the bottom thread will be showing on the top of the fabric. If the top is "loosing" or too loose then the top thread will be pulled through the fabric and show a lot on the bottom. They must be evened out so the "tug of war" is even so the knot is in the middle of the fabric.
START WITH BOBBIN FIRST: Remove bobbin and bob from finger. When you have it adjusted right then the bobbin will extend one inch when you bob it. If you can't bob your bobbin you will have to make an approximate and replace. You may have to do this a couple times to get it right.
WHEN IT'S RIGHT: The bobbin and top tension are equal without being too much pull on both that causes the fabric to pull together.
BOBBIN TENSION: BOB THE BOBBIN CARRIER AND BOBBIN WHILE ADJUSTING TENSION. WHEN IT WILL EXTEND ONE INCH IT IS RIGHT.
TOP TENSION: USUALLY A GOOD STARTING POINT IS THREE. THE TENSION IS RIGHT WHEN THE KNOT IS FORMED IN THE CENTER OF THE FABRIC.
TOP TOO TIGHT: WILL PULL EXCESS AMOUNT OF BOBBIN THREAD UP THROUGH THE FABRIC.
TOP TOO LOOSE: THE BOTTOM OF FABRIC WILL HAVE EXCESS AMOUNTS OF THREAD. USUALLY A MESS OF THREAD.
The sewing on the bottom is loose because you don't have enough tension on the TOP thread. First, make absolutely sure you are threading the machine correctly. Next, while using 2 different colours of thread, tighten the top tension dial one number at a time and then checking the stitching, continue tightening the top tension until the sewing is even on the top and bottom of your cloth.
When you thread your bobbin in the bobbin case, hold it only by the thread. If the bobbin and bobbin case fall, the tension is too loose. If this is the case, turn the bobbin tension screw 1/4 turn until the bobbin and bobbin case do not fall when only holding by the thread. The top tension should be set between 4 and 5. The best way to see which one needs to be adjusted is to do a zigzag. If the thread is pulling more on top and your top tension is set between 4 and 5, the bobbin tension is too loose. If your top tension is set between 4 and 5 and it's pulling on the bottom, the bottom is too tight.
Hi! The bobbin tension rarely needs to be adjusted. First, make sure you're using the appropriate size needle and thread for your fabric (I'd probably use either a 'denim' needle or a universal size 14) and also that the upper thread and bobbin are threaded absolutely correctly. These can throw off the tension! Also, take the time to clean out the bobbin area. That can throw your stitch off also.
If the stitch on the bottom is loose, so that you see the top threads, then the top tension is too loose. If the top stitch is too loose and you see the bobbin threads on top, then the top tension is too tight.
It helps to thread the machine with different color thread on top and in the bobbin, and then stitch an inch or so on the same type of fabric as you're using in your quilt. Check the stitch. If you need to adjust the top tension, make sure the pressure foot is down! Adjust a little, stitch a few inches, and check again. Repeat until you don't see any (or very little) bobbin thread on the top or top thread on the bottom.
If you go through all these steps, and the bobbin thread is still loose (and you've tightened up the top tension), then there is a tiny little screw on the side of the bobbin case that you can use to adjust the bobbin tension. Turn the screw just a little bit (less than a quarter turn), stitch, check, etc. Once the bobbin tension is set, you shouldn't ever have to change it.
You need to tighten the tension on the bobbin thread as it is too loose and is being pulled through by the tension on the top which is probably correct. First check that the bobbin is in correct. I know it's frustrating but even after 40 yr it's where I start if it's all in right then tighten the screw on the bobbin case a little at a time till you get it to the right tension. The thread coming out of the bobbin case should take a pull for thread to come out if you hold the thread and turn loose of the bobbin case and the thread unwinds like a yo-yo it's to loose. The bobbin should stay in the case wile you test it this way.