Sounds like the voice coil of that woofer overheated and melted while it was turned up too far. Now that area rubs on the magnet or pole piece internally and makes noise.
No you generally can't fix that except for a few high end woofer brands that have field replaceable voice coils that you can buy. Most subwoofers physically bottom out and sounds really bad before experiencing thermal damage like that. Sounding bad is a warning sign that it's being overloaded.
Note that woofers have 2 different types of overload conditions that can cause damage.
1. Over excursion from deep bass that moves the woofer cone too far and damages the suspension. This is clearly audible. Proper box design and user knowledge will prevent this.
2. Thermal limit. This is the published power rating that the voice coil can absorb without damage. Things can melt or fail entirely if this is exceeded.
Either of those issues can cause the noise you are hearing. Without a more detailed description of what happened or how it sounds before, during and after this is much detail as I can provide. But.. move the woofer some by hand, do it evenly pushing straight down evenly on both sides, not too far, go about half way through it's normal movement. If it clearly rubs and makes noise internally then the voice coil is damaged or if has some debris stuck in there. Most woofer are not serviceable.
There are many other factors that affect the longevity of the woofer, such as
- Ambient temperature too high
- Limited air flow has inadequate woofer cooling
- UV exposure can make the surround material brittle
- Proper enclosure design is needed to acoustically and physically supports the woofer to prevent bottoming out, particularly at the system resonant frequency.
- Amplifier distortion can kill speakers even when rated far below the woofers max wattage.