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What is the voltage across the load in each circuit in figure 14-47?

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Do your own homework.

Posted on Jan 06, 2014

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Geyser timer stopped working

Check circuit breaker.
Click fully off and then back on.
Check for burned smell at breaker or loose crackling sound that says breaker is bad.

Reset timer. Then Reprogram.
Possible geyser timer manual 24H-7-Day-Timer-230V Brochure.pdf

This timer has a non-replaceable internal rechargeable battery.
If battery has gone bad, then timer is defunct.

Use manual override button to turn timer ON-OFF.
Then test across terminals 3 and 4 for 240Volts.
Turn timer OFF, and test across terminals 4 and 5 for 240Volts
If no voltage shows then timer does not have output.

If test shows 80% undervoltage, that can cause load not to activate, depending on type of load.
Have electrician check for voltage issues at power company transformer.

Unknown what load timer is connected to.
Max load for this timer at 240 volts is 3680 watts, 16 amps.
Motor load is 230 volt 8 amps.
Check label on load for watt or amp rating.
Volts x amps = watts
Watts divided by volts = amps

Oct 31, 2012 | Hardware & Accessories

1 Answer

Four loads are connected in series across 120 volts and a 3- ampere current exists. One load fails to operate. The voltage across each of the other devices is 40 volts. What circuit fault is indicated?

because the loads are connected in series, the combined resistance is what drops the current to 3 amps
you will have to check the resistance of each load to find the faulty one
for example it is the same set up as if you have a lot of lights all connected in series
one light fails so the rest go out
you have to replace each light until they all come on

May 31, 2012 | Heating & Cooling

1 Answer

Minolta dialta 183 help me... theres a code in the screen CO5 .. and automatically turn off.

C0500: Warm-up failure

Step 1
Fusing Heater Lamp (H1) turns

Step 2
Fusing Heater Lamp (H1) is open-circuited.
<Check Procedure>
Check the resistance across both
ends of the Fusing Heater Lamp
The Fusing Heater Lamp is open-circuited
if the resistance is infinity.

Result: YES
Action: Change Fusing Heater Lamp (H1).

Step 3
Check: Thermoswitch 1 (TS1) is operational.
<Check Procedure>
Check the resistance across both
ends of the Thermoswitch 1 (TS1).
The Thermoswitch 1 is open-circuited
if the resistance is infinity.

Result: NO
Action: Change Thermoswitch 1 (TS1).

Step 4
Check: Fusing Unit Interlock Switch (S2) is
<Check Procedure>
Check continuity across terminals
when the Fusing Unit Interlock
Switch (S2) is turned ON.
• Across S2-1A and S2-1B
• Across S2-2A and S2-2B

Result: NO
Action: Change Fusing Unit Interlock
Switch (S2).

Result : YES
Action: Change DC Power Supply (PU1).

Step 5
Check: Thermistor (TH1) is open-circuited.
<Check Procedure>
Check the resistance across CN15-2
and CN15-3 on the Fusing Unit side
with CN15 disconnected.
The Thermistor is open-circuited if
the resistance is infinity.

Result: YES
Action: Change Thermistor (TH1).

Step 6
Check: The following voltages are supplied
from the Master Board (copier: PWBA).
<Check Procedure>
Check voltage across a Master Board
(copier: PWB-A) pin and GND when
the Power Switch is turned ON.
• Voltage across PJ10A-7 and GND
DC24 V when Fusing Heater Lamp
(H1) is OFF
DC0 V when Fusing Heater Lamp
(H1) is ON
• Voltage across PJ10A-10 and
DC24 V when Fusing Heater Lamp
(H1) is OFF
DC0 V when Fusing Heater Lamp
(H1) is ON

Result: NO
Action: Change Master Board (copier:

Oct 05, 2011 | Minolta DiALTA Di183 Copier

1 Answer

I have a briggs and stratton 8500/5500 generator which I am using to power an air conditioner on a camper trailer. I just recently started having a problem where the one circuit breaker keeps tripping when...

Hello, First figure out what the load per leg is on your generator. Are you using the 240 Volts because this is two 120 AC volts legs and they are 120 degrees out of phase with each other.

You will need to figure what the power factor is for each phase on this generator. To figure the power/wattage by using ohm's law. Voltage times Current will give you Watts. Example: If the generator is generator 240 volts the maximum current available is about 23 amps. The maximum current for 120 volts will 46 amps. Therefore, the maximum current per 120 volt circuit is 23 amps for one circuit and 23 amps for the second 120 circuit..

I would try replacing the circuit breaker with the same amperage breaker. Also, watch what the generator load is per circuit. You can install current meter for each circuit. This will give a good indication of which circuit is pulling more load than the other circuit. GB...stewbison

Sep 06, 2011 | Briggs & Stratton Power Products 5,550...

1 Answer

Changed battery in my 2007 Cobalt and now starter will not respond. All electronics work but starter. I'm told that I have to have it towed to dealership to have computer reset. Is that right and is...

If you remove and repair a ground connection, be sure you reconnect it to the same place. Do not change the length of the wire.

Static electricity from sliding around on the front seat is a concern when working around electronic components.Backprobing the computer under the hood is the only time you need to wear a ground strap.

* A digital multimeter (dmm), also called a digital volt/ohmmeter (dvom), is the instrument used to measure electricity in electronic circuits.
* A high impedance voltmeter must be used to perform tests on these systems. the integrated circuits in computer systems operate on very small amounts of current.
* An analog meter (one with a needle) that operates on magnetism can load down a computer circuit and actually change what is happening in the circuit.
o The meter seems like a short in the circuit, offering an easier path for electrical flow.

Electronics use very, very small amounts of electricity and are very sensitive to resistance in wiring. As little as 200 ohms resistance can cause a problem.

Testing the Circuit

* A wiring diagram for the vehicle being tested must be used for these tests.
* Backprobe the battery terminal at the powertrain control module (PCM) and connect a digital voltmeter from this terminal to ground.

Typical computer terminals and their identification. Reprinted with permission.

* Always ground the black meter lead.
* The voltage at this terminal should be 12 volts with the ignition switch off. If 12 volts are not available at this terminal, check the computer fuse and related circuit.
* Turn on the ignition switch and connect the red voltmeter lead to the other battery terminals at the PCM with the black lead still grounded.
o The voltage measured at these terminals should also be 12 volts with the ignition switch on.
o When the specified voltage is not available, test the voltage supply wires to these terminals. These terminals may be connected through fuses, fuse links, or relays.
* Computer ground wires usually extend from the computer to a ground connection on the engine or battery.
o With the ignition switch on, connect a digital voltmeter from the battery ground to the computer ground.
o The voltage drop across the ground wires should be 30 millivolts or less.
o If the voltage reading is greater than that or more than that specified by the manufacturer, repair the ground wires or connection.
* Not only should the computer ground be checked, but so should the ground (and positive) connection at the battery. Checking the condition of the battery and its cables should always be part of the initial visual inspection before beginning diagnosis of an engine control system.

A voltage drop test is a quick way of checking the condition of any wire.

* Connect a voltmeter across the wire or device being tested.
* Place the positive lead on the most positive side of the circuit.
* Then turn on the circuit.
* Ideally, there should be a zero volt reading across any wire unless it is a resistance wire that is designed to drop voltage; even then, check the drop against specifications to see if it is dropping too much.
* A good ground is especially critical for all reference voltage sensors. The problem here is not obvious until it is thought about.
o A bad ground will cause the reference voltage (normally 5 volts) to be higher than normal.
o Normally, the added resistance of a bad ground in a circuit would cause less voltage at a load.
o Because of the way reference voltage sensors are wired, the opposite is true.
o If the reference voltage to a sensor is too high, the output signal from the sensor to the computer will also be too high.
o As a result, the computer will be making decisions based on the wrong information.
o If the output signal is within the normal range for that sensor, the computer will not notice the wrong information and will not set a diagnostic trouble code (DTC).

To explain why the reference voltage increases with a bad ground, look at a voltage divider circuit.

* This circuit is designed to provide a 5-volt reference signal off the tap.
* A vehicle's computer feeds a regulated 12 volts to a similar circuit to ensure that the reference voltage to the sensors is very close to 5 volts.
* The voltage divider circuit consists of two resistors connected in series with a total resistance of 12 ohms.
* The reference voltage tap is between the two resistors. The first resistor drops 7 volts, which leaves 5 volts for the second resistor and for the reference voltage tap.

A voltage divider circuit with voltage values.

* This 5-volt reference signal will be always available at the tap, as long as 12 volts are available for the circuit.
* If the circuit has a poor ground, one that has resistance, the voltage drop across the first resistor will be decreased. This will cause the reference voltage to increase.
* In the figure below, to simulate a bad ground, a 4-ohm resistor was added into the circuit at the ground connection at the battery.

Voltage divider circuit with a bad ground.

* This increases the total resistance of the circuit to 16 ohms and decreases the current flowing throughout the circuit.
* With less current flow through the circuit, the voltage drop across the first resistor decreases to 5.25 volts.

The voltage divider circuit above with voltage readings.

* This means the voltage available at the tap will be higher than 5 volts; it will be 6.75 volts.
* Poor grounds can also allow electro-magnetic interference (EMI) or noise to be present on the reference voltage signal.
* This noise causes small changes in the voltage going to the sensor. Therefore, the output signal from the sensor will also have these voltage changes.
* The computer will try to respond to these small, rapid changes, which can cause a driveability problem.
* The best way to check for noise is to use a lab scope.
o Connect the labe scope between the 5-volt reference signal into the sensor and the ground.
o The trace on the scope should be flat.

(Top) A good voltage signal. (Bottom) A voltage signal with noise.

o If noise is present, move the scope's negative probe to a known good ground.
o If the noise disappears, the sensor's ground circuit is bad or has resistance.
o If the noise is still present, the voltage feed circuit is bad or there is EMI in the circuit from another source, such as the A/C generator.
o Find and repair the cause of noise.

Testing a Ground Circuit

* Measure voltage drop across the ground side of the circuit.
* Connect the meter to the ground side of the sensor or actuator. This is the lead that returns to the computer.
* Connect the negative side of the meter to the negative battery terminal.
* Voltage drop in a sensor's ground circuit should be less than 0.1 V.
* Power ground circuits should not exceed 0.3 V.
* Isolate the problem by working your way down the circuit.
* Ground side resistance that is too high will decrease voltage in the circuit. The computer will receive too low a return signal from the sensor.

Too much electrical current causes heat that can damage an electrical circuit. Voltage spikes are the biggest cause of electrical damage to an integrated circuit.

* Voltage is limited to about 20 V. Most automotive computer systems operate on 5 volts.
* If a circuit never exceeds its voltage or current limits, it is very reliable.
* Semiconductors are designed to handle a limited amount of current.
o A light bulb can draw 2.5 amps.
o Transistors in computers draw 200 milliamps (0.2 A).
* If too much current is applied in a reverse direction, it can force through and ruin a diode or transistor.
* Computers can tolerate a high current surge for about 5 seconds.
* If a sensor or wiring connection is unplugged while there is power to it, a spike can occur.
* A spike while disconnecting a powered circuit lead can result in a spike of 50 volts or so.
o This happens because electrons that were in motion before the circuit was broken back up at the connection.
o When they try to push their way across the gap, the spike is created.
o Manufacturers build safeguards for voltage spikes into their newer systems, but not enough to protect against disconnecting and reconnecting components.
* Voltage spikes can also result from an arc welder. Always disconnect the battery before doing any welding.

Sep 03, 2011 | 2007 Chevrolet Cobalt Coupe

1 Answer

How can i get single phase power from my 3 phase generator

I have not wire this myself
Wiki says under heading of single-phase:
Single-phase loads may be connected to a three-phase system in two ways. A load may be connected across two of the three phase conductors or a load can be connected from a live phase conductor to the system neutral. Single-phase loads should be distributed evenly between the phases of the three-phase system for efficient use of the supply transformer and supply conductors. Where the line-to-neutral voltage is a standard utilization voltage (for example in a 230 V/400 V system), individual single-phase utility customers or loads may each be connected to a different phase of the supply. Where the line-to-neutral voltage is not a common utilization voltage, for example in a 347/600 V system, single-phase loads must be supplied by individual step-down transformers.

So it sounds like you take 2 legs of the 3-phase.
Take one leg of the 3-phase and connect to neutral ... neutral could be a ground rod.

I would put a meter on that circuit before hooking up my power saw.

Nov 17, 2010 | Electrical Supplies

1 Answer

I can't get 240v across the bottom element. Where should I start? Shouldn't it have 240v across it? I can ground one side of the meter to the tank and can get 120v to each side, but not 240v across the...

If that is indeed so you have a "Short" between Phase and Earth. .. YES one should have the mains Voltage across the Load, But NEVER anything between Phase & Earth. Look think of it all like this. The Phase comes in, to a, say, a switch, from switch, to thermostat, from thermostat, to One Side of the "Load" Element. The "Other side of that "Load" Element then goes to Neutral. Circuit Complete. Two elements, wired in series would indeed split the Voltage, if wired that way. If done like this, but if wired in parallel, then, again Both would have One End, connected to Phase, & the "Other" side(s) would go to Neutral. Thus the circuit is complete. Some setups are more complex, and use two elements. but essentially all the same. The elements could be wired in series or parallel, depending on current draw/resistance. The Phase is the wire always "Broken" and the Neutral is always "Common".

Feb 10, 2010 | Rheem 50 GAL ELEC TALL Water Heater 6YR SC...

3 Answers

Dryer has 110V only.Light burns when door is opened.Controle panel does not switch on at all.Each leg where power cord is attached has 110V.I have replaced Thermal Cut-off & High Limit...

Your problem is not in the dryer. 220V circuits can be confusing in that the 110 leg can feed back and in reality you are getting the same 110V reading on both legs. Check across the two legs and see if you get 220V if not then you have confirmed what I suspect. Your problem is probably with you circuit breaker in the electric panel. Try switching the breaker off and forcefully turning it back on, You also can take off the panel cover and check to see if you have 220V across the two poles of the circuit breaker. You may have to replace the circuit breaker, it is not uncommon for one leg of a breaker ot go out especially when used on a dryer that pulls high amp. resistance loads.


Dec 26, 2009 | Whirlpool GEW9868K Electric Dryer

1 Answer

Four loads are connected in series across 110 volt dc. the load fail to operate.a voltmeter connected in succession across each device read 0 across the first three loads and 110 volt across the fourth...

If you have four loads connected in series and after the first load you have 0 volts, it is not possible to have 110 volts at the fourth load. If you have four switches in series, and have the problem you are describing it means that your fourth switch is open, and therefore will not pass power to the actual load.

Note- voltmeters measure the difference in voltage between the two leads, so with the power on, if your meter reads 0, the switch is closed, with the leads on either side of the switch, and 110 means the switch is open. On the other hand if you touched one probe to ground, and checked voltage on each side of the switch, you would have 110 up to the switch that is open.

Hope this helps

Sep 17, 2009 | Heating & Cooling

1 Answer

No power out

When you say no power.I assume you have no current flow,because you state there is a voltage present.I can think of at least two possible routes to figure out what is going on.First you could try another load with your solar panel array,and see if it is producing its rated current at the voltage specified.Say the panel is rated at 24 watts for example.24 watts divided by 24 volts equals 1 amp.If you hook up a 24 ohm load to this array it should produce your 1 amp current flow,or in other words it should be able to maintain the 24 volts across the load at 1 amp.Thus your 24 watt output.Also check that your controller doesn't need more power input than the array can provide.Which is kind of leading to the other route you can take.You can also try placing a 24 volt dc source of sufficient output power across your pump controller and see if it will operate.Two car batteries in series would work.

Nov 07, 2008 | Sharp Polycrystalline Solar Panels...

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