The shuttle hook on my singer simple keeps catching my needle, bending it and sometimes I have to wiggle it loose to avoid breaking the needle.
I have tried it with the bobbin case in and out of the machine and it still catches on the shuttle hook right after the needle drops below the plate.
I had let a friend use my machine and she was quite rough. Speeding through stitches, not stopping when she hit the end of a line of stitches, etc She also broke a needle while attempting to sew.
Ever since then my shuttle hook has been catching my needle. And also, when the needle is at it's highest point, my machine gets tighter and harder to turn like it's getting caught on something. this may be related, but I don't know
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all sewing machines are basically the same, the hook that rotates to pick the cotton up off the needle must just enter behind the needle when it's on it's way back up which then grabs the cotton to form the stitch, so you must remove the sole plate to expose the shuttle case remove the shuttle and put to one side, now rotate the hand wheel on the sewing machine in the correct rotation and watch the hook rotate round until it goes behind the needle, just as the needle is starting back up from it's lowest position the hook should just be going behind the needle to pick up the cotton, if this is not the case then loosen the screws that clamp the hook assembly to the shaft and rotate the hook assembly gently until the hook is just going behind the needle and make sure the hook is close to the needle before retightening the clamping crews , and final give it a few turns by hand to make sure the hook locates the same all the time and the hook is not catching the needle, when your happy, then reassemble.
The needle height is best checked by rotating the handwheel until the needle goes down through the stitch-plate (Make sure you're using a zig-zag stitch plate and not a straight stitch plate) and just starts to come back up again. Stop there. Gently push the needle bar to the right until the needle is at its furthest-most travel right (next to the right-hand edge of the needle slot). Tip the machine backwards slightly and drop the bobbin door; take the bobbin out. Open the hook/shuttle retainer, but leave the hook/shuttle in the hook race. The point of the hook/shuttle should be somewhere near the top, just below the stitch plate. Slowly rotate the handwheel until the point of the hook/shuttle passes just behind the needle; The point on the hook/shuttle should be just above the thread hole in the needle - if-so, the needle is at the right height, assuming the machine is properly synchronised. If its at the wrong height, you would need to have the needle-bar mechanism adjusted to put it right (relatively simple) - you cant just try and fudge it by adjusting the needle height using the needle securing screw. If you need help with re-setting the needle bar to get the right height, I can help, but you really need to be sure that the machine is properly synchronised first, so this may not be the total solution. Hope this helps.
There should be one or two set screws behind the bobbin shuttle, they could also be in the bobbin shuttle. You will loosen them st the timing and then retighten them. The Timing on a sewing machine is really straight forward, but that doesn't mean its not a pain in the but. When the needle is at the bottom of its travelthe hook on the shuttle should be coming around to meet the needle. As the needle starts back up it will create a loop in the thread for that hook to catch. Therefore the needle needs to start up before that hook is directlly in line with the needle. But the hook has to be above the eye of the neelde. So rotate it back and forth with no thread and watch to see when the hook passes the needle. It will probably take several attempts but you can do it. Do it in small movements. and only tighten the set screws enough to hold the shuttle in place to check it. Do not forget to retighten them.
If you broke a needle and cannot get it to pick up the thread from the bobbin you need to check your timing. Remove the needle plate and turn the machine over watching the needle, when it is at the bottom of its travel the hook on the shuttle should be right next to or a fraction from the needle. So that as the needle begins to move upward the hook should pass it if it passes to soon it will miss the loop of thread. Check to make sure your needle is installed all the way up in the bar. If your machine is out of time and you are fairly handy, you can retime it. There should be 2 set screws some where behind the shuttle. Loosen them, one loose and one only as loose as need be to turn the shuttle. The needle must have moved upward about 1/16 before the hook is in place to catch the loop. This can be time comsuming, and you will have trial and error. Good luck. P.S. always check for simple stuff before you go for the hard stuff.
Actually,timing of needle vs, shuttle is not very easy job several factor you should check on.There is belt ot sometime a shafting with worm gear and helical gear under machine w/c drive the shuttle with the bobbins in timing order,Any one of them is present on the timing adjustment can be done by releasing the belt or the helical gear,besure machine is unplug then set all mechanism on low dead center meaning the needle move to utmost lower position catching this by the shuttle and bobbins at center position.No motion applied if this was set up,engage the belt with pulley and the bobbins link holder tigh allenscrew besure the needle is lower dead center at the center of shullle bobbins catching needle without motion when setting back at original position.If this was made manually move it on handwheel going up and side down the needle gradually if the needle move freely several time and it was catching this by the shuttle hook bobbins.if ok put thread bobbins and upper thread dial tension with the needle.Move machine on handwheel try to catch the bobbins thread,If this so your machine is ready to sew again if problem occurs on alignment repeat adjustment on perpect alignment,besure all parts on upper casing of machine specially two drive gear are in normal alignment.
turn the machine slowly by hand as the needle goes down check it does not hit the foot ,then the hole of the plate.
If it enters the hole and then stops aganst something it is possible the shuttle or bobbin is not in right take them out and replace them again.if the problem prisists take the needle plate off and warch as the needle goes down what it is hitting.
if the hook or shuttle is in the way the timming could be out.