It sounds like you have some corruption on your system. This could be due to an improper shutdown (forced shutdown without closing files properly) or a defective hard disk (these can go wrong from day 1 so be aware that 'I only just got the laptop' does not mean that the hard drive is not defective).
First and foremost, have you got any data (documents, spreadsheets, music, pictures, emails on the laptop. The reason for my asking this is before I suggest any course of action, we need to get your data off your system. Now to get your data off (assuming you don't have the files in an intact backup file - either full or incremental) the try this link and follow the appropriate instructions
Recover files from corrupted hard drive with best data recovery software
Once you are happy that you have the data safe, I assume that your system is no longer in warranty (if so check with Acer to see if they can help) and that you do not have the recovery media created for your laptop. There may be an option to enter Recovery mode during the startup sequence, please look at the bottom of the screen while the laptop starts up. It will be before the laptop attempts to load windows. Hit the appropriate key, this is usually a function key such as f12, or f4 or similar. From here follow the laptop makers instructions to recover the system. A word of warning This Will COMPLETELY clear your harddrive and put a new copy of the operating system (windows 8/ 8.1) on the system. No DATA will be saved. Other than this the system needs to have recovery files, which may be available via Acer or alternatively look online for sites which make recovery files available at a cost.
This is a link to a copy of the manual, which you should have, but in case you don't
Acer Aspire E1 510 User Manual Windows 8 1
I hope this helps
Green Dragon Solutions