Don't use a rubber mallet! It shouldn't take that much force! Make sure the piston ring is compressed enough so it will fit inside the cylinder as you slide it down over the piston. Be very delicate! It doesn't take much effort to break a piston ring or screw up the crank bearings. Just take your time and make sure everything is lined up and extremely clean.a thin coat of 2-stroke oil on the piston, rings, and inseide the cylinder will help protect everything - just make sure you're working in a clean environment where there's no dirt and grime for the thin coat of oil to attract.
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you have to remove engine from vechicle .drain oil out.you have to remove cylinder heads and tilt engine around on engine stand you have to remove oil pan then remove rod bearings caps bolts remove cap.put piece rubber hose on rod studs protect crankshaft. then you tap piston using piece of wood tap piston from bottom worn it out from top of cylinder head.
the pistons can be installed from the bottom of the cylinder where there should be a chamfer ( use a ring compressor here makes the job easier--on the bench)
once you have the piston in the cylinder then install the assembly into the block taking care to ensure that the piston is at the top of the cylinder so that the big end doesn't damage the crank journal as you slide the cylinder down into the block I take it that the engine is a diesel ( wet sleeves) so check the liner to block face height before fitting because if the cylinder lip is too low , it will blow head gaskets
make sure that the piston is orientated correctly , the same as the others
your replacing the piston rings? are you using a spring compressor? when you compress the rings and set the piston down in there sleeves make sure to oil the cylinders the with the rings compressed and staggered gently tap the top of the piston with the wooden handle of a hammer. when i say stagger i mean the gaps in each ring are in a different position so as not to create a bypass of pressure or oil. if you use the compressor the piston should slide into the sleeve of the cylinder
It can be time consuming and the end result may not be desirable if you haven't done it before. ---
The following is just a sample of what to do once the engine is torn down:
Pistons and Connecting Rods
Before installing the piston/connecting rod assembly, oil the pistons, piston rings and the cylinder walls with light engine oil. Install connecting rod bolt protectors or rubber hose onto the connecting rod bolts/studs. Also perform the following:
Select the proper ring set for the size cylinder bore.
Position the ring in the bore in which it is going to be used.
Push the ring down into the bore area where normal ring wear is not encountered.
Use the head of the piston to position the ring in the bore so that the ring is square with the cylinder wall. Use caution to avoid damage to the ring or cylinder bore.
Measure the gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge. Ring gap in a worn cylinder is normally greater than specification. If the ring gap is greater than the specified limits, try an oversize ring set.
Fig. 5: Checking the piston ring-to-ring groove side clearance using the ring and a feeler gauge
Check the ring side clearance of the compression rings with a feeler gauge inserted between the ring and its lower land according to specification. The gauge should slide freely around the entire ring circumference without binding. Any wear that occurs will form a step at the inner portion of the lower land. If the lower lands have high steps, the piston should be replaced.
Fig. 6: The notch on the side of the bearing cap matches the tang on the bearing insert
Unless new pistons are installed, be sure to install the pistons in the cylinders from which they were removed. The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one engine or cylinder to another, new bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. The notch on the piston head goes toward the front of the engine.
Install all of the rod bearing inserts into the rods and caps.
Fig. 7: Most rings are marked to show which side of the ring should face up when installed to the piston
Install the rings to the pistons. Install the oil control ring first, then the second compression ring and finally the top compression ring. Use a piston ring expander tool to aid in installation and to help reduce the chance of breakage.
Fig. 8: Install the piston and rod assembly into the block using a ring compressor and the handle of a hammer
Make sure the ring gaps are properly spaced around the circumference of the piston. Fit a piston ring compressor around the piston and slide the piston and connecting rod assembly down into the cylinder bore, pushing it in with the wooden hammer handle. Push the piston down until it is only slightly below the top of the cylinder bore. Guide the connecting rod onto the crankshaft bearing journal carefully, to avoid damaging the crankshaft.
Check the bearing clearance of all the rod bearings, fitting them to the crankshaft bearing journals. Follow the procedure in the crankshaft installation above.
After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coating of assembly oil to the journals and bearings.
Turn the crankshaft until the appropriate bearing journal is at the bottom of its stroke, then push the piston assembly all the way down until the connecting rod bearing seats on the crankshaft journal. Be careful not to allow the bearing cap screws to strike the crankshaft bearing journals and damage them.
After the piston and connecting rod assemblies have been installed, check the connecting rod side clearance on each crankshaft journal.
Prime and install the oil pump and the oil pump intake tube.
Install the auxiliary/balance shaft(s)/assembly(ies).
Install the timing sprockets/gears and the belt/chain assemblies.
Engine Covers and Components
Install the timing cover(s) and oil pan. Refer to your notes and drawings made prior to disassembly and install all of the components that were removed. Install the engine into the vehicle.
Engine Start-up and Break-in
STARTING THE ENGINE
Now that the engine is installed and every wire and hose is properly connected, go back and double check that all coolant and vacuum hoses are connected. Check that your oil drain plug is installed and properly tightened. If not already done, install a new oil filter onto the engine. Fill the crankcase with the proper amount and grade of engine oil. Fill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of coolant/water.
Connect the vehicle battery.
Start the engine. Keep your eye on your oil pressure indicator; if it does not indicate oil pressure within 10 seconds of starting, turn the vehicle OFF.
WARNING Damage to the engine can result if it is allowed to run with no oil pressure. Check the engine oil level to make sure that it is full. Check for any leaks and if found, repair the leaks before continuing. If there is still no indication of oil pressure, you may need to prime the system.
Confirm that there are no fluid leaks (oil or other).
Allow the engine to reach normal operating temperature (the upper radiator hose will be hot to the touch).
At this point any necessary checks or adjustments can be performed, such as ignition timing.
Install any remaining components or body panels which were removed.
Using a block or dowel of wood(maybe rubber mallet also), depress the top cap of the cylinder to relieve tension on the ring.
Use a small edged screw driver or pick and spin "retainer" in until the bent end comes to the opening.
Lift up and rotate the ring more to allow the ring to pass over the edge of the opening.
Once the retainer is started you can tap it with the wood and rubber mallet around the circumference of the cylinder to release the retainer from the groove.
If you havent done so by now the oil should be drained.
with the cylinder firm in vise(but not too firm to "distort the integrity of the cylinder.) Place the cylinder Sideways so you can pull out piston and rod assembly.*** Put hose or suitable drain on holes of cylinder***. With the motion of the piston the residual oil will tend to spray out.
Pull on the piston and position it to bottom out on the top gland(cap) ie:full extension
Place support under the rod to avoid damage. The gland is a tight tolerant fit with use of O-rings and backup rings. Too much offset can lead to damaging gland assembly, and jamming in the cylinder. You may be able to just hold with hand also depends on size, bore, stroke, pressure rating. Use due dilligence.
Now that its out you have the piston assembly with gland in hand..**if only the rod comes out there are more steps to take, and you need a new rod but sometimes its more cost effective to buy a new cylinder. If there is a farm supplier or hydraulic dealer near they can certifiably /replace repair the cylinder for you. Hydraulic pressure is kind of like lightening. If it strikes you under pressure it can kill you.*** Using the dead blow or rubber mallet try to pop the gland out by using the piston/rod assembly as the puller. You may not have to remove the top clevice or other end of the cylinder, so maybe you could tap on that.
The piston can be removed from the rod depending again on make. Usually a socket head cap screw or king nut holding it in place to the rod.
When the piston is removed you should be able to slide gland off also.
You'll need that pick and or the screwdriver to pick out the seals carefully. Let me know if you require more...WF Services
These procedures may be performed with the engine in the car. If additional overhaul work is to be performed, it will be easier if the engine is removed and mounted on an engine stand. Most stands allow the block to be rotated, giving easy access to both the top and bottom. These procedures require certain hand tools which may not be in your tool box. A cylinder ridge reamer, a numbered punch set, piston ring expander, snapring tools and piston installation tool (ring compressor) are all necessary for correct piston and rod repair. These tools are commonly available from retail tool suppliers; you may be able to rent them from larger automotive supply houses.
Remove the cylinder head.Elevate and safely support the vehicle on jackstands.
Drain the engine oil. Remove any splash shield or rock guards which are in the way and remove the oil pan. Using a numbered punch set, mark the cylinder number on each piston rod and bearing cap. Do this BEFORE loosening any bolts. Loosen and remove the rod cap nuts and the rod caps. It will probably be necessary to tap the caps loose; do so with a small plastic mallet or other soft-faced tool. Keep the bearing insert with the cap when it is removed. Use short pieces of hose to cover the bolt threads; this protects the bolt, the crankshaft and the cylinder walls during removal. One piston will be at the lowest point in its cylinder. Cover the top of this piston with a rag. Examine the top area of the cylinder with your fingers, looking for a noticeable ridge around the cylinder. If any ridge is felt, it must be carefully removed by using the ridge reamer. Work with extreme care to avoid cutting too deeply.When the ridge is removed, carefully remove the rag and ALL the shavings from the cylinder. No metal cuttings may remain in the cylinder or the wall will be damaged when the piston is removed. A small magnet or an oil soaked rag can be helpful in removing the fine shavings. After the cylinder is de-ridged, squirt a liberal coating of engine oil onto the cylinder walls until evenly coated. Carefully push the piston and rod assembly upwards from the bottom by using a wooden hammer handle on the bottom of the connecting rod. The next lowest piston should be gently pushed downwards from above. This will cause the crankshaft to turn and relocate the other pistons as well. When the piston is in its lowest position, repeat the steps used for the first piston. Repeat the procedure for each of the remaining pistons. When all the pistons are removed, clean the block and cylinder walls thoroughly with solvent.
1. Jack up and remove tire
2. Remove 2 brake caliper mounting bolts
3. Remove caliper and hang out of way with wire
4. Remove rotor, if stuck hit on all sides with a rubber mallet until it breaks loose.
5. Install new rotor
6. Remove old pads from caliper
7. Using a c-clamp and a block of wood against caliper piston, compress piston until it is flush w/caliper
8. Install new pads in same location as old pads
9. Reinstall caliper, may have to nudge it into place with rubber mallet
10. Reinstall tire.
note: There are no bearings to grease. You must replace the entire hub assembly if yours are worn.