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ADVANTAGES OF COMBINING SESSION,PRESENTATION, AND APPLICATION LAYER IN THE OSI MODEL INTO THE APPLICATION LAYER IN THE INTERNET

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SOURCE: which device work in presentation

i don't understand your problem clearly.
As far as i understand so this may be solution to your problem.
Solution:
"Gateway Re-director is operates on the presentation layer in OSI model"

Posted on Jan 04, 2011

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What are the advantages of SIP for VoIP?


SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is an application layer protocol that is based on IP. It is a major communication standard mostly responsible for VoIP (Voice over IP) telephonic system. In the traditional phone networks, ISDN (Integrated Services for Digital Network) is considered as the communication standard designed for the transmission of voice traffic. Both ISDN, and SIP are usable with equal reliability; however, in ISDN system, the clients need to pay for the data service, and voice service separately, while in the SIP system there is no separate charge for data and voice. Thus, SIP is just good for the customers as it decreases the telephone charges drastically.
Reliance Global Call-Enterprise is one of the most reliable and popular SIP trunk providers over VoIP. It helps to install SIP trunk at the organizational levels, enabling to cut international call rates like local calls. Moreover, the users can connect their landlines, as also mobile lines with the SIP trunk service for VoIP.

Feb 22, 2017 | The Computers & Internet

1 Answer

Which device work in presentation layer in osi modul


i don't understand your problem clearly.
As far as i understand so this may be solution to your problem.
Solution:
"Gateway Re-director is operates on the presentation layer in OSI model"

Jan 04, 2011 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

What is layer 2 ip?


layer 2 addresses are MAC addresses, which are hard coded in to networking devices, such as network cards. 'IP' addresses are classed as layer 3 addresses.

the 'layers' come from the OSI model

hope that helps :)

Oct 15, 2010 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

Hello wots an router somthing to do withs to internet and how do reinstall it


To understand what a router does, you need to know a little bit about how the Internet works. The Internet, the huge world-wide computer network that we surf the World Wide Web on, uses the TCP/IP networking protocol. Data sent over a TCP/IP network is broken down into chunks called "packets", and in order for these packets to get where they need to go on the Internet, something is needed to route them to their destinations (hence the name router). The many networks that make up the Internet are connected to each other by routers, and the routers determine what packets go where. Routers are level 3 devices on the OSI model, which means that they function at the network layer. The OSI model has 7 levels, and each one represents a function when it comes to data communication between two or more computers on a computer network. To understand what I'm talking about in the next paragraph, you need to know about the OSI model and what layer the router represents.

When the average computer user thinks of a router, they probably think of the kind that you can purchase at your local computer store, as opposed to the big ones that route packets on the Internet. That smaller kind of router allows you to share an Internet connection with multiple computers without having to use a computer that acts as a "gateway". If you have a computer network at home and the center of it is a hub or a switch, you need to use a computer that acts as a gateway ("host" computer), as hubs and switches cannot do what a router does (hubs and switches are two other devices that you can purchase at your local computer store to create a network between two or more computers). A router can "intelligently" route TCP/IP packets to IP addresses (unique identifiers on a TCP/IP network) at layer 3, while a hub is just a dumb layer 1 device that sends out packets to all of the computers attached to it, regardless of who sent them out and who they're intended for. A switch is a layer 2 device that routes Ethernet frames by MAC address; Ethernet is a networking standard that home networks are based on, a frame is the Ethernet equivalent of a TCP/IP packet (chunk of data), and a MAC address is a computer's unique identifier at layer 2 (datalink) on an Ethernet network. Although a switch is "smarter" than a hub, it still can't do what a router does. The functions that a router performs are necessary for communication between the computers on your network and computers on other networks on the Internet at the network layer (TCP/IP). Probably the most important thing that a router does is perform NAT, which stands for Network Address Translation. NAT is a technology that allows computers on a network behind an Internet connection to communicate with computers outside the network; to the rest of the Internet the network is a single IP address (the one your ISP gave you), and NAT allows for incoming and outgoing connections between the computers on the network who have their own "internal" IP addresses and the computers outside the network who see only the ISP-assigned IP address. A "gateway" computer using Internet connection sharing software like the kind that Windows comes with performs the same functions as a hardware router, but there are some disadvantages that come with using that setup, like how all of the computers on the network lose Internet access if the gateway computer is offline. If you want to share an Internet connection between two or more computers in your home, a hardware router is the best thing to get for it.

Dec 04, 2009 | Belkin Wireless G Plus MIMO (F5D9230-4)...

1 Answer

Layer3


Which model are you talking about ? I have included both


Here is the OSI model
Layer 1 = physical medium & signal on the wire (physical)
Layer 2 = MAC Address and SNAP (ATM) (data link)
Layer 3 = IP Addressing V4 V6 (network)
Layer 4 = TCP/UDP (RTP, RTSP) (transport)
Layer 5 = Duplexing Half or full (Session)
Layer 6 = HTTP, FTP, SNMP (presentation)
Layer 7 = Web browser, FTP Client, (application)

TCP Model:
Layer 1 = physical medium & signal on the wire (physical) (Hub and reapeter)

Layer 2 = MAC Address and SNAP (ATM) (data) (Switches and bridges)

Layer 3 = IP Addressing V4 V6,
Layer 4 = TCP/UDP (RTP, RTSP) (Internetwork) (Firewall, IPSEC) Routers

(This function is split between 4&5) Duplexing Half or full

Layer 5 = , HTTP, FTP, SNMP, Web browser, FTP Client, (application) (programs)


I hope this helps,

Thank you,

Shuttle83

http://www.electron-age-technologies-llc.com

Feb 11, 2009 | IBM Nways 8277 Model 524 Networking Switch

1 Answer

Why we starting using OSI model


He probably needs an answer to the topic question for his studies.

ANSWER: The reason we started using it was to enable network communication between the various networking hardware products of various producers without it mattering which one was produced by who and on what platform. This is possible because the OSI model is a standardisation (ISO 7498-1) which lists the various functions provided by different network protocols into layers on top of each other in a way that the layers above each other can only use functions provided by a sub-layer and can only provide functions for a superior layer. The model clearly specifys how one layer can interact with the other. (this by the way is what we call RFC -- Request for Comments) This way a software of the layer written by one producer could cooperate/communicate with the software of a layer written by a different producer even on two different platforms.

Please rate if this solution helped you.

Feb 02, 2009 | Gateway Essential 400 PC Desktop

1 Answer

What is osi model


The 7 Layers of the OSI Model
Last updated: March 03, 2008
The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.
Application
(Layer 7)
This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
Presentation
(Layer 6)
This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
Session
(Layer 5)
This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
Transport
(Layer 4)
This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.
Network
(Layer 3)
This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.
Data Link
(Layer 2)
At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.
Physical
(Layer 1)
This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.



For further details go to:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model

Jan 13, 2009 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

Hello


SOCKS is an Internet protocol that facilitates the routing of network packets between client-server applications via a proxy server. SOCKS performs at Layer 5 of the OSI model - the Session Layer (an intermediate layer between the presentation layer and the transport layer).

Clients behind a firewall may connect to a SOCKS proxy server in order to access external services through the firewall. Such a proxy server controls the eligibility of the client to access the external server and, if the client has eligibility, passes the request on to the server. SOCKS can also be used in the opposite way, allowing the clients outside the firewall ("exterior clients") to connect to servers inside the firewall (internal servers).

SOCKS software

* Kernel SOCKS Bouncer ksb26 (Kernel Socks Bouncer) is a Linux Kernel 2.6.x Loadable Kernel Module that redirects TCP connection (to user-defined target hosts) through socks 4/5 chains.
* SS5 Socks Server is an open-source SOCKS4/SOCKS5 server.
* Dante is an open-source SOCKS4/SOCKS5 implementation with commercial support developed by Inferno Nettverk A/S.
* OpenSSH allows dynamic creation of tunnels, specified via a subset of the SOCKS protocol, supporting the CONNECT command.
* WinSocks is a light-weight SOCKS4/SOCKS5 server developed by Proxy Labs.
* SOcat Multipurpose relay (SOcket CAT): includes socks4, and socks4a functionality (Linux / Mac)
* FreeCap Socksifyer for Windows, any App can run its network traffic transparently via a SOCKS or HTTP proxy.
* Simple Socks Server for Perl - SSS is a Simple SOCKS Server written in perl that implements the SOCKS v5 protocol.
* Sun Java System Web Proxy Server is a caching proxy server running on Solaris, Linux and Windows servers that supports HTtp://S, NSAPI I/O filters, dynamic reconfiguration, SOCKSv5 and reverse proxy.
* BarracudaDrive Web Server - commercial SOCKS HTTP HTTPS tunnel/server, available for Windows, embedded Linux and Mac OS X (PowerPC)
* DeleGate is a multi-purpose application level gateway and proxy server which runs on multiple platforms. Beside SOCKS it also supports HTTP(S), FTP, NNTP, SMTP, POP, IMAP, LDAP, Telnet, DNS and many more.

Jan 05, 2009 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

Layer3


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model

Layer3 is the Network Layer of the OSI Model, IP operates at Network Layer, OSI Model comprises of 7 layers, Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Datalink, Physical layers.

It is a model to follow when you are building Operating systems, applications to be used on the internet or compatibility with others.

Hope this helps

Mutahir

PS : Read about it on the wiki link i have provided, let me know for any other questions you may have.

Sep 15, 2008 | Computers & Internet

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