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Hi there. Here is a brief description of those components found on the motherboard.
1. BIOS chip: This is known as Basic Input Output System and the chip contains the base instructions on how to boot the PC. All personalized settings can be configured in the BIOS such as CPU overclocking.
2. North Bridge: This component works with high speed hardware components such as RAM and PCI-E cards.
3.South Bridge: This component works with slower speed hardware components such as the hard drive and USB.
4. CPU: Central Processing Unit, this is basically the brain of a computer and this component is the one that does all calculating of data. So when you run an application, the CPU processes the data involving the application.