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How to find power consumed by instruction for any architecture?

Suppose some instruction is fetched to CPU. then how to find the power need to execute that instruction for an architecture ?

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The only thing you can do is read the amperage and wattage with a multimeter and clamp. It would not be possible by any easily reconstructable means to measure such a thing right off the CPU.

Posted on Mar 05, 2009

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How cpu's work properly


What is a CPU?


The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is considered the brain of a computer.

Without this vital component, the computer wouldn't be able do any of the functions it is capable of doing. Basically, it is a chip that handles the moving and processing of data.


With each new upgrade, the CPU is getting faster and more powerful.

Speed and reliability is the name of the game when consumers are comparing CPU chips in the new PCs. F

or some, the brand of CPU is the major selling point for many when buying a new computer. The faster and more powerful the CPU, the more the computer will sell.


How Does it Work?


The CPU sits in the motherboard as the central unit.

All of the other hardware components and programs installed on the system must go through the CPU before their function can be carried out.


The CPU's job function is important and enormous in scale.
When a function, program or piece of data is called, the CPU pulls it from Random Access Memory (RAM) and any other hardware in order to process it.


The CPU then reads the instructions associated to the task before sending it back to RAM. The instructions that the CPU receives pertains to calculations and data transportation.


The system bus is the trail that the data must travel before it is executed.

It is the CPU's job to make sure that the data is guided through the system bus to be processed by the CPU and then on to the next step.


With every stop on the system bus, the CPU makes sure that the data gets there in the correct order.


hope this helps




Oct 11, 2012 | MSI K9N6SGM-V Motherboard

3 Answers

How I can incease CPU Freq from 408 MHz to 1008 MHz


It all depends on two things;

1) That you can go into BIOS Setup, and change parameters.

Parameters such as;

A) The Front Side Bus speed. (FSB), or
B) The Voltage for the CPU (Processor), or
C) The Multiplier for the CPU (Processor)

Or there may be a Soft CPU option available for the above, in BIOS Setup.

Be aware that overclocking the Processor will also step up the FSB. Ram memory, and expansion slot devices, will cease to work if the FSB is too high. (Front Side Bus,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front-side_bus

408MegaHertz to 1008MegaHertz?

That's a big jump. I do not think that processor in this technology age, is capable of overclocking this far. Plus IF it does, will not continue.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_microprocessors

Heat will be a Big issue for one.
The pathways inside a processor are based on the nm architecture.
NanoMeter. 1 Billionth of a Meter.

[ Your processor was probably in the 250nm architecture technology. Today's processors are down to the 22nm architecture ]

With too much heat there is Electron Migration. The electrons jump off, or Migrate, from the circuit trace they are on, over to a wrong circuit trace.
Causes the processor to burn up.

Secondly there is also a limit on the performance of a Processor. Asking for almost 2 and a half times the factory setting, is asking for too much.

Plus the Processors are tested at the factory, and sent out. They only have to fall within a rather broad set of specifications, and can be considered okay for the consumer, or computer manufacturer.

The Processor you have may have been on the Bottom of the test range. Even if you have knowledge, of someone else getting this kind of performance out of the same model, it may be that theirs was one of the ones, on the Top of the test range.

Overclocking is done in SMALL increments, THEN tested to see if the computer works fine, over a 24 hour period.

PERIOD

Change the Voltage?
Change in no more than a .2 Volt increment. Then the 24 hour test. Everything's OK? Move up .2 Volts. 24 hour test.

Remember, Ram Memory operates at approximately Half, of the Processor's FSB.
The expansion slots are a lot lower.

Change values (Parameters), such as Voltage for the CPU (Processor) for one, and you change everything.
Too much, Ram Memory, and anything in an expansion slot, will not work.

What Processor is it?
What motherboard name and model number? (Or what computer manufacturer and model number )

Post back in a Comment.

Regards,
joecoolvette

Jan 15, 2012 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

How does motherboard work


Hey linda,
Sorry for being late as i was having exams.
I hope you asked me about working of Computer and the role of motherboard in it. First i will explain about each individual part of motherboard and then will tell you how they are working all together to perform your tasks as simple as possible..
Actually motherboards are Circuits Printed or Embedded on a board so as to connect many other components like processor, RAM, BIOS, Hard Disk and other disk drives. They provide expansion slots and connectors to connect other devices so that you can increase your computer's performance and capabilities.
Motherboards provide connections between these devices and help to exchange data and information in a controlled and efficient way.
Simply we can say that all Motherboards usually consist of the following main components.
1. CPU Slot to hold Processor, which does all the calculations given in the computer per a clock pulse. It's like a million instructions per second or micro seconds or something like that. These are rough values and accurate values differ from processor to processor.
(CPU->Central Processing Unit)
2. Memory Controller: Controls the usage of memory while performing calculations, comparisons and other operations.
By the way There are two types of memories available on the computer which are connected to our motherboard.

Primary memory: These are the most important memories as they are needed for the calculations, comparisons and performance etc. Example: RAM and ROM.

Secondary Memory: These are used to store the results of calculations permanently ( or till you need it) for further reference.

3. Input-Output Unit (I-O Unit): The input and output units help us to connect and give instructions to our computer through input devices and read the output or result of the calculations done with inputted values through output devices. Basic Input Devices are Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner etc. while basic output devices are Monitor, Printer, Speaker etc.

Now with all these slots and connectors, we will now look into it's working.
In computer, SMPS distributes power to all the components inside your CPU CABINET. So, When AC mains is given, SMPS distributes it to the power supply unit of our motherboard and through that to our power button. This means that when ever power is given, motherboard will get power supply but won't switch ON until we press our power button.

Note: The start up procedure of a computer is always termed as Booting. The booting process starts once you power on the system and will continue till the Operating System is loaded into primary memory.

So, after you press our power button, ROM or Read Only Memory will immediately gets activated and instructions contained in it for System start up, Hardware and it's Fault Detection, Booting Up and Shutting Down Process will help the motherboard to identify it's processor, RAM, I-O units(Only Keyboard, Mouse and Display), and some memory devices in which the Operating System (OS) is located. All these devices will contain a coded address by which it is targeted and addressed.

After identifying, it checks and detects any hardware faults. The faults detected may either be shown via output devices or a buzzer alarm( Alarm is also there within the motherboard). And if no fault is detected , it continues the booting process. The next step of booting process is to acquire the physical address of location where OS is located. It then acquire and extract data from the location of the device and load it's files into RAM. RAM is just like a waiting list or queue in which all the process which are executing, to be executed next are stored till the process is completed. So, the data extracted from the location (as told above) which is now stored in RAM will contain some instructions for the processor to do. These instructions may include loading of other files from other locations, starting display units, showing some other error messages. So, these instructions are carried out by processor and loads other OS files like a chain function. So, it goes on executing other process and tasks till the computer is switched off.

Thus for each process you call on your computer(like a game or a simple calculator program or anything), it first loads all the necessary files into RAM, accepts necessary instructions from input devices, executes all the instructions in it using processor and displays the result through output devices and this goes on till you exit that program.

Also, processor also has some units like Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit , Cache etc. Instructions are executed according to their type (whether it is arithmetic or any other type) and use Cache as their temporary memory for calculations. While Cache is used to store temporary results of the active calculations, RAM stores the list of processes executing and to be executed ( as told above).

So, as told above, Motherboard provide connections between processors, RAM, ROM,I-O Devices, USB, Network Adapters, Graphic Devices etc.

Thank you for asking me a direct question.If you want to know more detailed working like what are the instructions given to varies devices like Processors and RAM, how are they given, how instructions in ROM are embedded etc, feel free to ask me. Once again sorry for being late.

Jan 05, 2012 | Dell Computers & Internet

2 Answers

I want to know the graphic card slot in the motherboard ASUS M2N68-AM-SE2. Whether it supports DRR1, DDR2 OR DDR3.


Hi, you can see the list here:

http://www.asus.com/Motherboards/AMD_AM2Plus/M2N68AM/#specifications

At this site you also find drivers.
Remember to select your operating system

AMD Socket AM2+ / AM2 Processors
for AMD Phenom™ FX / Phenom / Athlon™ / Sempron™
AMD Cool 'n' Quiet™ Technology
AMD64 architecture enables simultaneous 32-bit and 64-bit computing
Support 45nm Phenom™ II CPU Chipset NVIDIA Geforce 7025/nForce 630a
System Bus 2000/1600 MT/s Memory 2 x240-pin DIMM, Max. 4 GB, DDR2 1066/800/667/533 ECC,Non-ECC,Un-buffered Memory
Dual Channel memory architecture
*DDR2 1066 is supported by AM2+ CPU only Expansion Slots 1 x PCIe x16
1 x PCIe x1
2 x PCI
Storage Southbridge
4 xSATA 3 Gb/s ports Support RAID 0,1,5,10,JBOD

ATAPI support ,AHCI mode
LAN RTL8211CL Phy Gigabit LAN Audio ALC662 High Definition Audio 6 -Channel CODEC
USB 10 USB 2.0 ports (4 on back I/O, 6 on board)
AMD Socket AM2+ / AM2 Processors
for AMD Phenom™ FX / Phenom / Athlon™ / Sempron™
AMD Cool 'n' Quiet™ Technology
AMD64 architecture enables simultaneous 32-bit and 64-bit computing
Support 45nm Phenom™ II CPU Chipset NVIDIA Geforce 7025/nForce 630a
System Bus 2000/1600 MT/s Memory 2 x240-pin DIMM, Max. 4 GB, DDR2 1066/800/667/533 ECC,Non-ECC,Un-buffered Memory
Dual Channel memory architecture
*DDR2 1066 is supported by AM2+ CPU only Expansion Slots 1 x PCIe x16
1 x PCIe x1
2 x PCI
Storage Southbridge
4 xSATA 3 Gb/s ports Support RAID 0,1,5,10,JBOD

ATAPI support ,AHCI mode
LAN RTL8211CL Phy Gigabit LAN Audio ALC662 High Definition Audio 6 -Channel CODEC
USB 10 USB 2.0 ports (4 on back I/O, 6 on board)
AMD Socket AM2+ / AM2 Processors
for AMD Phenom™ FX / Phenom / Athlon™ / Sempron™
AMD Cool 'n' Quiet™ Technology
AMD64 architecture enables simultaneous 32-bit and 64-bit computing
Support 45nm Phenom™ II CPU Chipset NVIDIA Geforce 7025/nForce 630a
System Bus 2000/1600 MT/s Memory 2 x240-pin DIMM, Max. 4 GB, DDR2 1066/800/667/533 ECC,Non-ECC,Un-buffered Memory
Dual Channel memory architecture
*DDR2 1066 is supported by AM2+ CPU only Expansion Slots 1 x PCIe x16
1 x PCIe x1
2 x PCI
Storage Southbridge
4 xSATA 3 Gb/s ports Support RAID 0,1,5,10,JBOD

ATAPI support ,AHCI mode
LAN RTL8211CL Phy Gigabit LAN Audio ALC662 High Definition Audio 6 -Channel CODEC
USB 10 USB 2.0 ports (4 on back I/O, 6 on board)
2 x240-pin DIMM, Max. 4 GB, DDR2 1066/800/667/533 ECC,Non-ECC,Un-buffered Memory
Dual Channel memory architecture
*DDR2 1066 is supported by AM2+ CPU only

1 x PCI-E x16 Graphic card slot.

Aug 25, 2011 | ASUS M2N68-AM SE2 Motherboard

1 Answer

With help of a diagram describe a data processing cycle.


Some would say Input, Processing, Output. The diagram would be an arrow from input to processing, then an arrow from processing to to output. Then an arrow from output to Input in this way of looking at it. You will find more complicated descriptions and diagrams, too.

http://technology.blurtit.com/300718/what-is-data-processing-cycle
The data processing cycle:

It is Sequence of steps performed repeatedly by a computer in the execution of a program. The computer's central processing unit (CPU) continuously works through a loop. It fetches a program instruction from memory. Then the CPU fetches any data it needs. Then it applies the data to the program. It stores the result in memory. Then it fetches another program instruction.
Others include more stages: http://www.enterprisefeatures.com/6-important-stages-in-the-data-processing-cycle/

data collection
data preparation
data input
data processing
data storage
data output

Aug 03, 2011 | Computers & Internet

2 Answers

Pc hang when there is disk inserted on my dvd ram..


Your DVD drive needs serviceing, you can use a lens cleaning CD,
When you insert a Disk, it keeps on trying to read it, so the PC hangs meanwhile

Jan 16, 2010 | Computers & Internet

2 Answers

I need the motherboard manual for p4m266823x


I need driver VIA P4M266-823x, help me please!!!

Jun 10, 2009 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

Microprocessor instruction set


An instruction set is a list of all the instructions, and all their variations, that a processor (or in the case of a virtual machine, an interpreter) can execute.
Instructions include:
  • Arithmetic such as add and subtract
  • Logic instructions such as and, or, and not
  • Data instructions such as move, input, output, load, and store
  • Control flow instructions such as goto, if ... goto, call, and return.
An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), is the part of the computer architecture related to programming, including the native data types, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O. An ISA includes a specification of the set of opcodes (machine language), the native commands implemented by a particular CPU design.

May 26, 2009 | Computers & Internet

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