Typically adjusting the front derailleur is a matter of adjusting the two adjusting screws on the derailleur. So turn the bike upside down. It should sit on its seat and handle bars. Find the two adjusting screws one will prevent the derailleur from traveling too far out preventing the chain from coming off. The other screw prevents the derailleur from traveling too far in keeping the chain from falling off that way. Now once you have found the screws slowly start turning the pedals like it was being ridden. Move the derailleur out as far as it will go if you see the chain is about to come off adjust the screw. Do same for inside screw. Now move the back derailleur all the way in and retest front derailleur, repeater with rear derailleur all the was out. Hope that helps. Oh, the back derailleur adjusts same way.
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1st The brakes: Once you have ran the cable through appropriate cable holders and to the brakes-you hold the brake calipers shut-remove excess slack from cable by pulling on it with pliers and back off a little before tightening the nut holding the cable(amount you have to back off tension depends on how strait your wheel is).
The Front Derailer doesn't usually have adjustment so you put the gear lever in top gear-loosen the nut holding the cable-push the derailer into the right position-remove slack from cable with pliers then tighten the nut.
The Rear Derailer: will need to be done the same way if your running a new cable..*But there is a screw on the derailer near the junction of the 2 parts that adjusts the position of the derailer- so you can do minor adjustments-**NOTE-there are 2 screws- 1 changes the position in or out and the other changes the angle**
If it used to work and the cables are new then the cabels streached as normal you need derailer adjustments. If you have had it a while, and recently fell then you bent your derailer hanger take it to a bike shop to be straitened by a pro.. If it is a new bike and never worked at all then you need some derailer adjustments. You can adjust your derailer your self IF you know what you are doing. Otherwise go to a bike shop and have them do it.
This problem is caused by improperly adjusted derailers/shifters, the mechanism that move the chain from one gear to the next. It is not uncommon for the derailers to be out of adjustment after sitting unused through the winter. Over time the cables that run between the shifters and the derailers stretch just a bit and the derailers no longer work as well without a little tuning up. Unfortunately, for the novice, adjusting the derailers is frustrating at best. The effort and patience it requires is nothing to take lightly. If you're game for giving it a try, there are a number of websites out there that will provide extensive guidance on the process - just "google" how to adjust bike derailers" and you will find plenty of options. My local bike shop will make adjustments like this for a small set price, around $20 or so - you may have a shop nearby that will do the same.
Shift your rear derail down to the smallest cog on the cassette. Loosen the nut that holds the cable onto the derail. If you are reusing the outer cables back the inner cable out to the shifter. If your replacing the outers also, note where they are installed. There should be an allen screw on the bottom of the shifter that will free up the shifter and expose the knob on the end of the cable. Pull out the old cable and install new in reverse. Insert the cable into the clamp on the derail. Pull the cable taught with pliers while tightening nut on clamp. Run through the gears while on middle ring on front. Turn barrel adjuster on derail in and out to dial in shifting. That should do it. Good luck and let me know if you have any problems.