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possibly the microphone needs more power than your sound card can supply although I cannot imagine as the duet is a good piece of equipment.
Is the duet USB bus powered?
Have you tried another cable? Possibly one wire is defective which means that phantom power will superpose the audio signal. In this case you might hear a hum. By the way this results in 6dB of signal loss. This is why XLR plugs have 3 wires. If connected with a 1/4" jack it has to be a stereo plug (tip, ring, sleeve)
This could be any of several things. IF the audio output of the mic is at a normal level then the first thing to check is the mic cable. I have several things to discuss so read all of this and then test.
First, I found six BRAND NEW XLR cables were wired wrong... the vendor had 13000 of them in stock and was going to have to check them all. The cables appear to work, but had the shield and one signal wire in the wrong place so the line was NOT a twisted pair balanced as required, but instead a plain coax. I had to repair these at a venue when I discovered the problem. Please google the correct XLR configuration. The pin numbering is NOT what one would expect. You cables (open the ends and look) should have the shield tied to pin 1 which is one of the side pins. Mine they had the shield on the middle pin or apex of the triangle.
Second, there are COUNTERFEIT Shure SM58's being sold. Read about that at google... If you unscrew the screen and find a label on the side of the element, the mic is a fake... Now there are two qualities of fakes... some perform ABOUT as good as the genuine, and others don't even have the balancing transformer.
If the hum is only there while handling the mic, the ground to the shell is not connected... this is mainly a mechanical connection. You can extract the XLR male plug from the bottom of the mic by removing the side screw and gently pull out by grabbing one of the pins. Also you can verify the wire colors as the fakes use the wrong color wires.
Noise problems are my specialty so if you need further help send a comment to me.
The slightly low voltage / current handling of the power supply won't help. You could probably get away with up to 15v without difficulty - many laptop universal power supplies are capable of generating the higher voltage so might be better than normal multi-voltage transformers that only go up to 12v - they will also be more stable in output.
The polarity of your power supply could be the wrong way round - check the symbols on the case near the power input socket - it matters with some brands and not with others.
Move the wireless receiver away from any other sources of interference - anything with a large electro-magnetic field (CD or DVD players, tv, hearing loop amplifiers, mains transformers) or any large lumps of metal that may attenuate the signal.
Only use balanced (xlr) cables to connect receiver to amplifier mixer and make sure they do not run parallel to any cables carrying mains electricity.
Turn the signal gain on the receiver up and the sensitivity on the amp /mixer down to improve the signal to noise ratio.
If the set allows try switching to a different frequency
This usually means that the ground wire has broken. Try a new balanced XLR microphone cable and see if the hum goes away. If it doesn't then the problem is either the microphone or the jack that you are plugging the cable into. If you are plugging into a mixer, make sure that the ground pin has not been removed from the power cord. Same thing with the amp that the mixer is plugged into etc. If you think it is the microphone have a look for a small hole on the side of the base of the microphone where the cable plugs into it. Use a small flat bladed screwdriver to tighten that screw in a counterclockwise direction. This will stop the jack in the microphone from wiggling. It also provides a ground for the body of the microphone. If that doesn't help, Try turning it in to remove the jack and examine the wiring. Do this gently. There should be 3 wires on this jack. It is an XLR jack. The wires should be 1= ground, 2= hot and 3= cold. SAme with the plugs on the cable. Hope this helps.
You need a D.I. (direct interface) box. Most have XLR to 1/4" . You have to go from the 1/4" to your size jack. Remember your taking a low impedence device to a high impedence input thats why you need a D.I. you just can't make a cable to do that. Also I think you mean a 3.5mm jack.
This is a wonderful microphone that I used for years without any problems. Then it developed a background noise (a hiss, or buzz, or sound like a bad ground; it's been too long and I don't remember the specific sound now). I checked the integrity of the ground and other wires in the cable and didn't find any problems so I replaced the old cable with a new cable, but I still had the noise.
I use the microphone with the microphone head separated from the microphone body, so I have a cable that runs from the head to the body and a separate cable that runs from the body to my inputs. I don't have either an electrical or logical explanation for why the following solution got rid of my noise, but it worked for me.
On the cable that connects the head to the body, simply take an insulated wire, strip both ends and with electrical tape, tape one bare end to the metal plug shell on one end of the cable and then do the same with the the metal plug shell on the other end of the cable. You can add some tape wraps along the length of the cable so it doesn't look so funky and is a little less cumbersome. I didn't do anything to the cable that runs from the body to the inputs. This got rid of the noise for me. REALLY. THIS IS NOT A JOKE. I DON'T KNOW WHY, BUT IT WORKED FOR ME. Maybe it will also work for you. It's certainly easy enough to try. Good luck. Bob
you can test the cable from connection to connection for continuity from end to end. There should be no resistance( a complete short) If the cable is good, there is a bad or broken connection inside the mic. Good Luck