Take unit apart and thoroughly clean ( vaccum out) the fan area. if it is dirty you should blow out accumulated dust from the same area, if the fan does not turn freely the unit will overheat and shut down
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I've got an easy way for you to check, and then we can help you from there. First pop open both lids to your furnace (this may require a screwdriver). Turn up your thermostat, push the safety interlock button in if it has one (it's a button that turns off the power when the doors are removed), and watch.
On most modern furnaces (past 20-25 years) you'll hear/see: 1. Inducer fan 2. orange glow (ignitor) 3. Gas valve opening and ignition (flames) 4. Main Fan.
that's normal heater operation. The most common issue here is a burned out ignitor, in which case you wouldn't see the orange glow but the sequence would attempt to continue anyway (the gas valve will open and hiss gas, but it won't lite, then it'll give up and try again a few minutes later).
On older furnaces there's a pilot light to start with, the click of the gas valve and boom... ignition.
On new furnaces it's Inducer fan gas valve opening spark - ignition Main fan.
and there are some oddballs in between, particularly the Lennox Pulse. If that's your furnace just back away slowly and call a professional... some guys won't even touch those, so be sure to mention what it is... if you call a pro.
So go ahead and watch it run, then tell me/us what you see.
1. Check electricity is on.
2. Check oil is in the tank and valve turned on.
3. Switch the fan off at the bottom left hand corner.
4. Switch oil knob to No.1.
5. Set Air knob to No.3.
6. Operate re set button (right hand corner of heater under settings dial). Either press in until it clicks or if the pull out version pull out until it clicks.
Wait - ignition should take place in a few minutes and flames will appear on the left of the burner under the radiants.
You should get occasional yellow crests above the pure blue flame just visible below the top row of burner holes under the radiants.
After the red warning light goes out you can adjust to higher settings.
The radiants do not glow on low setting.
You can adjust the heater on to higher settings but this should be done gradually - no more than 2 settings at a time.
* The unit must be correctly earthed.
* Do not use anything except heater oil.
* Never attempt to re-light the heater when it is hot.
* If the red light does not appear when the oil knob is switched on, immediately turn the oil knob off. Reasons include: Heater is too hot; Electric plug turned off; failure of ignition system.
Good luck - no responsibility taken for the advice (but it is largely copied from my Vulcan heaters instruction manual which I still have (installed in 1967).
Check the roll out switch(s) and the lock out switches. They are a small disc looking about the size of a nickle, with with 2 wires attached on them. There will be a re-set button in the middle that resembles a small peg. Push this in to re-set. As the glow coil shorted out, the fuse on the control board may have blown. On the newer furnaces find the main board and look for a car type fuse. If blown, replace. You also have the symptoms of a bad limit switch, by the clicking noise (the heat fan relay) and the blower fan running instantlly.