While roughing up with sandpaper might work, but the usual problem that causes a chuck to fall off is a mismatched taper or either the chuck or the spindle has a dirty surface. The tiniest bloom of rust will cause this. Additionally a mismatch of depth will also cause a poor fit. To fit correctly the taper must be correct on both parts and they need to be clean and lightly oiled.
If it is necessary to san these pieces, use a very fine wet or dry paper. I would not use paper beyond 320 and use a light oil such as kerosene or diesel oil rather than water. Check the dept by looking inside at the wear marks. If the inside of the chuck receiver shows wear so close to the bottom that you cannot ascertain any distance between the wear marks and the bottom, the chuck may be bottoming instead of tightening on the taper correctly. You can easily check it with some fine shim material or perhaps three to five thickness of aluminum foil. Cut five thicknesses to fit in the bottom of the chuck (not all chucks have actual bottoms and go clear through) but not on the walls that are tapered. Reinstall, and remove. Is the aluminum foil damaged/show contact marks? If so, did the chuck go on all the way and come off more easily? If so, the problem is bottoming. Bottoming is quite rare but can happen when different than spec chucks are used.
You might also examine the surfaces of both. They should look pristine with no scratches and marks. If not, that could also be the problem. A correct taper fit is difficult to spin, or remove during normal drilling operations.
I have a rubber malet next to my drill press. When i change out chucks,I move the table to the side and take a good swing at the chuck to seat it good. If that doesnt work try roughing up the shaft with some sand paper and try to rough up the inside of the chuck with sandpaper or a small wire brush. Good luck.
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this happens when the surfaces of the tapers both external and internal are damaged or have burrs
use fine emery paper to clean the surfaces
then put the chuck into the spindle taper and using a piece of wood pull the feed handle down rapidly so that the chuck is hit back up into the spindle
No there isnt. the chuck has a taper fit and needs to be cleaned and installed correctly. Use something like a brake clean or carb cleaner and spray the shaft and the internal socket of the chuck, wipe both clean with a paper towel and then move the table out of the way and with the chuck jaws fully retracted use a piece of wood and "seat the chuck" I usually strike the wood a couple of times. this should work as long as the tapers are not that worn.
Grizzly sells a nice variety of quality chucks at good prices. Look at the numbers on the chuck you have to determine what to buy. You should remove and re-use the taper from your present chuck. You probably have a Morse #2 taper up into the spindle like the picture shown below. I assume you know how to get that out of the spindle. What is not shown in this picture is the taper that is inserted into the chuck. This is probably a Jacobs taper. To separate that you need to support the chuck in a vise with the long taper pointing down. Put something below it to catch it without damage when it falls out. Open the chuck as far as it will go. Get a bolt (about 3/8) that you can hit with a hammer inside the chuck straight down to knock the taper out of the back of the chuck.
you need to seat it properly. It is probably a taper shank and socket, if so clean both parts with something like brake clean or similar dry off with a paper towel, fully retract the jaws, move table out of the way and find a block of wood. put taper into socket and place wood under chuck and strike the wood with a hammer a couple times to seat this, if other than that let me know and I will find something else, I would also need the brand and model number
There is a long tapered hole in the spindle of the press known as a Morse taper. It holds a 6 or 8 inch morse taper arbor which is attached to the drill chuck. This is made to be removed frequently by putting a wedge shaped key into a horizontal hole in the drill press and giving it a little tap. This is for making tool change that involve removing the chuck. If you had two such tools (say two different style chucks) they would each have their own dedicated morse taper arbor. But there is also a short tapered cyclinder on the chuck end of the morse taper arbor, with a matching hole in the back of th chuck. This is not intended to come apart frequently, but it can be disassembled. I'm not sure which one is coming apart, but regardless of which one it is, you might try this fix. Clean up any bumps at all on the oustide of the taper and inside the hole with sandpaper 200 - 300 grit. Use a dowel to hold the sandpaper in the hole, and use the motor to spin it. --- JUST BE CAREFUL that if it grabs that it doesn't grab you! Once it's all cleaned up, you can you the press aspect of the drill press to seat it in place. You also might have to replace the arbor. They don't cost all that much and are available from Grizzly.com. You specify the particular taper for BOTH ends of the arbor. The long end is a Morse 2,3 or 4, and the short end is specific to the drill chuck manufacturer, like JT-2 (Jacobs chuck taper 2). Write back if you need more help.
get something like brake clean and spray both parts the shaft and internal socket and then wipe with a paper towel. Next put the shaft into the socket and "tap" into place with a block of wood on the drill chuck with the jaws retracted. You might have to "tap" a little hard if you know what I mean but this will seat the tapers and you should not have a problem for a while.
This sounds like a morse taper adaptor. if so look at the taper for any unusual wear. if none what I would do is get something like brake clean or similar product to remove all oil and grease. clean the shaft and the internal socket. wipe off with cleam paper towel after cleaning. retract the chuck jaws to prevent damage to the chuck and align the tang on adaptor with the internal socket. Take a piece of wood and hammer and hit the chuck seating the taper. You can also try using the table with a block of wood and the feed handle to seat it. If it continues to fall you have worn parts that need replaced. Good luck