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Re: the thread is knoting underneath when sewing
It sounds like you maybe using the wrong needle size for the material you are sewing, or perhaps it is the thread. I've found that not all threads are created equal and it may be too fine/heavy for the needle gauge your using.
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What you are seeing is called "bird's nesting." There are two main reasons for "bird's nesting."
The first one is the thread not between the tension disks. That allows the thread to be pulled from the spool instead of pulling the thread tight from underneath. Always make sure to always put up your presser foot before you thread the tension disks. I also check the thread after I finish to make sure the top thread has good tension on it before sewing.
The second reason is the thread is not being pulled by the take up lever. Make sure you see it being pulled by the take up lever before you start sewing. If not, rethread it.
be sure to hold the top and bottom threads in back and away from machine as you start to sew. once you have sewn several stitches you can let go and continue sewing. sometimes this is all that is needed to avoid the "birds nest" on the bottom of the project.
Sounds like it's not threaded properly and or you have tension problems. Re-thread with the presser foot UP. Sew a test seam. If you still get loops loosen the upper tension... a little at a time. Sew tests seam after each adjustment.
top tension is too loose,check threading up and tension dial. should be on 4-6. read manual and if possible clean tension device. if it is accessible you turn dial to zero and "floss" between tension discs using selvage edge of clean piece of cotton fabric. you can moisten it with denatured alcohol if very dirty. thread sheds dye particles, especially black or cheaper threads. needs to be removed regularly to keep tension discs clean. turn back dial to 5 after and thread up again. often this will resolve the problem
You could try adjusting the tension on the bobbin but it rarely needs adjusting.
Have you checked that all the top tension discs are clean? Often a tiny bit of broken thread causes problems. Pull a thick piece of thread manually through all of them or prise gently open and look. Take out the bobbin case and put the hoover end in the empty space to **** out any stray threads, or shoot compressed air in there to blow it clean.
Remove the needle plate and check for broken threads underneath.
Try re-threading the whole thing and remember to keep the presser foot up as you do it to keep the top tension discs released.
I have found that a blunt needle can also cause this problem....no idea why.
Have you oiled your machine recently, perhaps something is stiff. Your manual should tell you where to oil. Good luck.
Thread jams underneath usually are caused by top thread tension issues. Things to check:
top tension discs are clean and no thread traces caught in there, tension is set to medium number usually 4 or 5 and that the top thread is running freely from the thread spool, correctly thread through the tension discs, and down to the needle. Lower the pressure foot and pull the thread from just above the needle; it should feel firm resistance if under tension correctly.
As you've had a good jam up, good idea to now remove the bobbin, needle plate and bobbin holder (refer to your manual if you have never done this before) and clean out the hook area well, look for any fine thread remants and brush out any lint etc. Oil the rotary hook area as per your manual. Now reassemble, and rethread everything again checking that the bobbin thread is clicked into the tension spring and that the top thread is through the tension discs correctly.
Also, pop in a new needle, flat shank to the back, then try again.
the thread hook is not grabbing the thread; it is not turning around and, knoting the needle and, bobbin threads together.
pull the cover off under the bobbin so you can see the hook: it looks like a small disk with a point on it) turn the wheel so that the needle goes down and, see why the hook is missing the thread then: adjust the hook so it just passes through the needle loop when the needle starts back up.
birdsnest refers to a mess of thread on the underside of fabric when you start sewing (after a few stitches all looks good). if this is the case and it is happening during embroidery, switch off jump stitch thread cutting.
if it happens at the start of normal sewing, either hold your needle thread when you start sewing or make sure the needle thread is under the presser foot and held by the presser foot when you start sewing. this way you will have an inch or so of thread on top of your fabric which you can trim instead of a mess underneath.
if there is a mess underneath for more than first few stitches, either your check spring in the needle tension area is set incorrectly, or your needle tension is set too loose (adjustable in sevice menu by tech only) or there is foreign matter caught in tension assembly preventing proper tension.