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You need both. One is pigment and the other is dye. One is used for photographs and the other for non-photographs - but it's the printer that decides which one to use.
All Canon printers (to my knowledge) will stop working if any one ink cartridge is empty. This is to prevent damage to the print nozzles. The ink itself is the cooling medium for the hot nozzles.
Epson cartridges cannot be refilled like normal cartridges. They use a special ink. You would be better off buying a replacement cartridge as I've never heard of a good result with anyone who has attempted to refill an Epson. Usually leads to havong to replace a printer. Sorry I don't have a better solution.
Replacing the five ink tanks (cyan, yellow, magenta, black dye, and black pigment) is a simple task. The top of the printer flips up to reveal the ink tanks and the printheads, and by flipping a lever, you can pull out each tank individually. Being able to replace individual tanks is a boon, as you won't waste colors you use less frequently. Also, you won't need separate photo ink to print photos, which we appreciate. Canon ships the Pixma MP830 with full ink tanks. Replacement color and dye-based black ink tanks cost $14.25 apiece, while the pigment-based black ink tank costs $16.25. Canon estimates the cost per page for both black text and color text to be an inexpensive 2 cents.
The PGBK cartridge is a pigment black ink, while the others use a dye for coloration. The pigment black is used when printing text and other documents. The dye ink is used when printing photos and other colored documents. The dye black is used in conjunction with the color (dye) inks to provide tinting and color gradation, and therefore is not used nearly as much as the pigment black unless you use your printer only for printing photos.
If you're printing text and documents, you will need to buy another pigment black (PGBK) cartridge.
The printer does recognize 2 different catridges. My understanding is that the smaller is specific to photos,
but the larger is used for everyday text and pages.
I would get the cartridge and then wait to see if the printer
won't print photos when small cardtridge is out. If it does
print, pictures may not be good enough for you.
The number 5 is a Pigment text black while the number 8 is a dye photo black. The text black is for black text mainly and the photo black is for use when printing photos. Since the text black is always running out it means you are printing a lot of documents in plain paper mode.
I recommend using QUALITY refill ink like Hobbicolors which is sold on eBay and will save you a bundle of money. The MP830 is a 5 ink printer so you need the 5 ink kit like the IP4300.