Remove the toner cartridge from the drum casing using the release lever. The drum is not to be removed from the drum casing. Just rotate the drum using the side button until you see the dirt mentioned. Use cotton swab to wipe dirt off. Be careful not to damage it. If that doesn't work, you need a need drum which is closely the same price as getting a toner cartridge. Refer to your Brother MFC 8840D manual that came with the machine. Alternatively, you can refer to the online manual.
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Check the drum unit. Rotate the optical cylinder slowly, looking for a scratch or clot of toner on the drum. You may need to clean it with compressed air or VERY gently with alcohol and a cotton ball. If the drum cylinder is clear of defects, check the fuser at the back of the machine for the same. A drum can be cleaned or replaced, a trashed fuser is not repairable. It may also be cheaper to replace the machine than to replace the drum of course.
If you've taken the printer apart and cleaned the belt unit and everywhere else in the paper's path, then it is probably either a bad toner cartridge or the drum. Since it's multiple colors producing splatter, its most likely the drum unit. Try taking the drum out and removing all of the toner cartridges and then clean the drums and corona wires. If its still producing splatter afterward, you've got yourself a bad drum.
replacing the drum takes A little expertise for this machine.make sure the drum specification meets your machines specification. . remove the durm and wait for a day or two carefully fix drum and make sure it is properly sitted in position (coppier shold be off all this while) Start machine And allow it to come on fully before use. if problem persist make sure invite an experct
Is it only when you use the top feeder? Check by placing an original on the glass and copying if the same fault then there are three possibilities
Optics Dirty (Dust on the copying mirrors) Remove glass and clean the mirrors on the scan unit also remove the lens cover and clean the mirrors under there replace lens cover clean glass and refit. (Do Not remove any mirrors you can clean them in there place and use a glass cleaning solution)
Toner Waste and drum cleaning unit full. Open front cover and split machine as to remove jam not touching the drum (Large Cylinder ) check there is no banding on there. IF so to the left of drum there is a unit that contains the cleaning blade and fills with waste toner remove vacuum out waste toner check that cleaning blade ok and reinstall. Close and check machine if ok then great if not could be fault number 3 or that the cleaning blade is worn and need replacing.
The fuser section (Heat section) While the machine is split look at the bottom left you will see a Orange unit this is the fuser section that houses the heat roller which welds the toner to the page. Check that the top roller is OK that there is no toner stuck on it and the Teflon coating is even. If not then the fuser will need replacing and as you said that you are missing text the most likely faults are going to be the fuser or the drum or the drum cleaning blade.
I had this problem too. I took out the drum and vacuum the drum with a vacuum cleaner ( no brush ) while at the same time manually rotate the drum cyclinder. It worked. After a month or two, you might have to do it again. But everytime, it solved the dust problem.
(Possibly by staple going threw machine if that what each of the five marks look like, all those removed staples always seem to end up in printers)
You can pull it out (I think right top cover opens and cartridge pulls up and to the right) then .. turn it over and gently pull back cover see drum has same marks as you see on paper, you can gently rotate drum by using gear on edge do not force it only turns easy one way, Do not touch drum surface very delicate and sensitive. Normal disposable item buy a New cartridge here is HP part number for your model HP C8543X (HP 43X) Toner Cart.