Question about Mbt ZTS Inc. Mini-MBT, Mini Multi-Battery Tester for More than 15 Different Bat

# Why must voltmeter be connected in parallel w/ circuit component

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• Anonymous Jan 26, 2009

h8hjym8

• satishkumar1 Jan 29, 2009

why should the voltmeter be connected in parallel n ammeter connected in series with respect to the circuit component?

• Anonymous Mar 31, 2009

why voltmeter is connected in parallel to the circuit

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• Contributor

When connected in parallel it reads the voltage drop across said component.
When connected in series the current flows thru the meter allowing the measurement of the current flowing thru circuit.
Hope that helps.

Posted on Jan 05, 2009

Hi,
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the service is completely free and covers almost anything you can think of (from cars to computers, handyman, and even drones).
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Posted on Jan 02, 2017

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## Related Questions:

### Starter won't crank on my 2007 harley street glide

Does the starter relay click, Is does the solenoid click, if it rattles probably the battery is discharged.

Best diagnosis is voltage drop testing.

First do a voltage reading on the battery and note what it is.

Using a voltmeter attach the red meter lead to the most positive part of the circuit, which would be the positive post of the battery and attach the black meter lead to the final destination or component in the circuit (if testing a starter circuit this would be the terminal on the starter, not the solenoid). THEN try to activate the starter and observe the meter reading. The meter will read the voltage dropped or the difference in potential between the source and the destination. An ideal circuit voltage drop reading would be 1 volt or less. If there is an open in the circuit (i.e. NO electricity is reaching the terminal) the voltmeter should read source voltage volts which means all the voltage was dropped. A normal good starter circuit should not show more than a one volt drop. If more than 1 volt is dropped there is a problem somewhere in the circuitry before the starter terminal. In this case leaving the red voltmeter lead on the battery positive post, move the negative voltmeter lead to the solenoid stud where the battery cable attaches and activate the starter circuit again. If the voltage reading is now 1 volt or less clean, repair, tighten the starter solenoid to starter terminal stud connections and test again and if no change clean/repair the internal solenoid contacts or replace the solenoid with a new/good one. If there is still a voltage drop greater than 1 volt move the negative voltmeter lead from the solenoid terminal stud to the actual battery cable terminal end at the solenoid terminal stud and again activate the starter circuit. If there is a 1 volt or less reading the battery cable terminal end and/or solenoid terminal stud and/or the connection between the two is faulty, loose, corroded or etc. Clean and tighten and retest. If there is still more than a 1 volt reading on the voltmeter the problem is a loose or corroded or otherwise bad connection between the battery cable terminal end and the battery positive post or the battery cable itself is bad. Clean and tighten the battery cable terminal and battery positive post and test again. If there is still more than a one volt reading on the voltmeter the battery cable is bad and will need to be replaced.

If there is less than a 1 volt reading when the test is done at the starter terminal the circuit up to that point is good so the next step will be to do a negative or ground circuit voltage drop test by connecting the negative or black voltmeter lead to the most negative point which is normally the negative battery post (or the closest thing thereto if, like some Sportsters, the battery post is hard or impossible to get to) and then connect the positive or red voltmeter lead to the starter mounting studs. Then activate the starter circuit again and if the voltage reading is greater than 1 volt clean the battery negative cable ends and battery post and negative cable to motorcycle frame or other grounding point, tighten same and similarly the starter mounting points and studs because there is a problem with the starter ground (could be looseness, corrosion, powder coat/paint problems etc). If the voltage reading is 1 volt or less than 1 volt in this test the ground circuit is okay and it will be necessary to perform a starter current draw test on the vehicle (and/or a starter current free draw test on the bench). If the results are within the specifications for the starter in these tests remove the spark plugs, raise the rear wheel so it can spin unimpeded, put the transmission in 5th gear and rotate the rear wheel to check for engine, transmission, primary and/or crankshaft resistance/bind. If the results are not within the amperage specifications for the particular starter replace or repair the starter motor to bring within the system amperage specifications.

May 26, 2014 | Harley Davidson FLHX Street Glide...

### 2004 FLHTC. The bike was hard starting. Checked battery, 12.8V. Now, it will not start. What could be the problem?

You could have a bad starter ground but more likely you have a bad solenoid. Do voltage drop testing to find the problem for sure.

First do a voltage reading on the battery and note what it is.

Using a voltmeter attach the red meter lead to the most positive part of the circuit, which would be the positive post of the battery and attach the black meter lead to the final destination or component in the circuit (if testing a starter circuit this would be the terminal on the starter, not the solenoid). THEN try to activate the starter and observe the meter reading. The meter will read the voltage dropped or the difference in potential between the source and the destination. An ideal circuit voltage drop reading would be 1 volt or less. If there is an open in the circuit (i.e. NO electricity is reaching the terminal) the voltmeter should read source voltage volts which means all the voltage was dropped. A normal good starter circuit should not show more than a one volt drop. If more than 1 volt is dropped there is a problem somewhere in the circuitry before the starter terminal. In this case leaving the red voltmeter lead on the battery positive post, move the negative voltmeter lead to the solenoid stud where the battery cable attaches and activate the starter circuit again. If the voltage reading is now 1 volt or less clean, repair, tighten the starter solenoid to starter terminal stud connections and test again and if no change clean/repair the internal solenoid contacts or replace the solenoid with a new/good one. If there is still a voltage drop greater than 1 volt move the negative voltmeter lead from the solenoid terminal stud to the actual battery cable terminal end at the solenoid terminal stud and again activate the starter circuit. If there is a 1 volt or less reading the battery cable terminal end and/or solenoid terminal stud and/or the connection between the two is faulty, loose, corroded or etc. Clean and tighten and retest. If there is still more than a 1 volt reading on the voltmeter the problem is a loose or corroded or otherwise bad connection between the battery cable terminal end and the battery positive post or the battery cable itself is bad. Clean and tighten the battery cable terminal and battery positive post and test again. If there is still more than a one volt reading on the voltmeter the battery cable is bad and will need to be replaced.

If there is less than a 1 volt reading when the test is done at the starter terminal the circuit up to that point is good so the next step will be to do a negative or ground circuit voltage drop test by connecting the negative or black voltmeter lead to the most negative point which is normally the negative battery post (or the closest thing thereto if, like some Sportsters, the battery post is hard or impossible to get to) and then connect the positive or red voltmeter lead to the starter mounting studs. Then activate the starter circuit again and if the voltage reading is greater than 1 volt clean the battery negative cable ends and battery post and negative cable to motorcycle frame or other grounding point, tighten same and similarly the starter mounting points and studs because there is a problem with the starter ground (could be looseness, corrosion, powder coat/paint problems etc). If the voltage reading is 1 volt or less than 1 volt in this test the ground circuit is okay and it will be necessary to perform a starter current draw test on the vehicle (and/or a starter current free draw test on the bench). If the results are within the specifications for the starter in these tests remove the spark plugs, raise the rear wheel so it can spin unimpeded, put the transmission in 5th gear and rotate the rear wheel to check for engine, transmission, primary and/or crankshaft resistance/bind. If the results are not within the amperage specifications for the particular starter replace or repair the starter motor to bring within the system amperage specifications.

May 16, 2014 | 2004 Harley Davidson FLHTC - FLHTCI...

### The bike won't crank over even with a new battery fully charged.

Be sure the battery is hooked up properly. If loud click the solenoid is clicking if soft small click it is the relay. If the solenoid id making the click it may have bad , corroded points that will not pass sufficient amperage to operate the starter. Do a voltage drop test to locate the problem.

First do a voltage reading on the battery and note what it is.

Using a voltmeter attach the red meter lead to the most positive part of the circuit, which would be the positive post of the battery and attach the black meter lead to the final destination or component in the circuit (if testing a starter circuit this would be the terminal on the starter, not the solenoid). THEN try to activate the starter and observe the meter reading. The meter will read the voltage dropped or the difference in potential between the source and the destination. An ideal circuit voltage drop reading would be 1 volt or less. If there is an open in the circuit (i.e. NO electricity is reaching the terminal) the voltmeter should read source voltage volts which means all the voltage was dropped. A normal good starter circuit should not show more than a one volt drop. If more than 1 volt is dropped there is a problem somewhere in the circuitry before the starter terminal. In this case leaving the red voltmeter lead on the battery positive post, move the negative voltmeter lead to the solenoid stud where the battery cable attaches and activate the starter circuit again. If the voltage reading is now 1 volt or less clean, repair, tighten the starter solenoid to starter terminal stud connections and test again and if no change clean/repair the internal solenoid contacts or replace the solenoid with a new/good one. If there is still a voltage drop greater than 1 volt move the negative voltmeter lead from the solenoid terminal stud to the actual battery cable terminal end at the solenoid terminal stud and again activate the starter circuit. If there is a 1 volt or less reading the battery cable terminal end and/or solenoid terminal stud and/or the connection between the two is faulty, loose, corroded or etc. Clean and tighten and retest. If there is still more than a 1 volt reading on the voltmeter the problem is a loose or corroded or otherwise bad connection between the battery cable terminal end and the battery positive post or the battery cable itself is bad. Clean and tighten the battery cable terminal and battery positive post and test again. If there is still more than a one volt reading on the voltmeter the battery cable is bad and will need to be replaced.

If there is less than a 1 volt reading when the test is done at the starter terminal the circuit up to that point is good so the next step will be to do a negative or ground circuit voltage drop test by connecting the negative or black voltmeter lead to the most negative point which is normally the negative battery post (or the closest thing thereto if, like some Sportsters, the battery post is hard or impossible to get to) and then connect the positive or red voltmeter lead to the starter mounting studs. Then activate the starter circuit again and if the voltage reading is greater than 1 volt clean the battery negative cable ends and battery post and negative cable to motorcycle frame or other grounding point, tighten same and similarly the starter mounting points and studs because there is a problem with the starter ground (could be looseness, corrosion, powder coat/paint problems etc). If the voltage reading is 1 volt or less than 1 volt in this test the ground circuit is okay and it will be necessary to perform a starter current draw test on the vehicle (and/or a starter current free draw test on the bench). If the results are within the specifications for the starter in these tests remove the spark plugs, raise the rear wheel so it can spin unimpeded, put the transmission in 5th gear and rotate the rear wheel to check for engine, transmission, primary and/or crankshaft resistance/bind. If the results are not within the amperage specifications for the particular starter replace or repair the starter motor to bring within the system amperage specifications.

May 16, 2014 | 2007 Harley Davidson XL1200R Sportster...

### Troy bilt pony will not start. replaced 20 amp fuse and battery

OK -- Here's what to do:
TROY-BILT PONY LT CRANKING CIRCUIT TROUBLESHOOTING

NOTE 1: The following tests are to be made with the parking brake applied and the PTO disengaged unless otherwise specified.

NOTE 2: These tests need only be made until the cause of the problem is located. The entire process need not be completed if the problem has been resolved.

NOTE 3: Refer to the wiring diagram below for understanding of all tersts.

NOTE 4: Wiring Diagram references to Key switch A1 and L terminals refer to the same terminal.

1. With all circuits connected normally, connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the battery positive terminal. The voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, go to step 2.
b. If YES, go to Step 3.

2. Connect a DC voltemeter directly across the battery. The voltmeter should read at least 12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, charge or replace the battery.
b. If YES, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 2 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 3.
-- battery negative cable condition
-- battery negative cable connections at the battery
-- battery negative cable connections at the tractor frame

3. With all circuits connected normally, connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the key swttch "B" terminal (Circuit #97 - red/white wire). The voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, go to step 4.
b. If YES, go to Step 8.

4. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the starter relay BAT terminal (Circuit #94 - heavy red wire). The voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 4 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 5.
-- battery positive cable condition
-- battery positive cable connections at the battery
-- battery positive cable connection at the starter relay
b. If YES, go to Step 5.

5. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the fuse holder BAT terminal (Circuit #92 - red wire). The voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 5 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 6.
-- Circuit 92 wire condition
-- Circuit 92 wire connection at the starter relay
-- Circuit 92 wire connection at the fuse holder
b. If YES, go to Step 6.

6. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the fuse holder protected circuit terminal (Circuit #97 - red & white wire). The voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 6 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 7.
-- 20A fuse condition
-- fuse holder condition
-- fuse holder wire connections
b. If YES, go to Step 7.

7. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the key switch "B" terminal (Circuit #97 - red & white wire). The voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 7 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 8.
-- Circuit 97 wire condition
-- Circuit 97 connection at fuse holdser
-- Circuit 97 connection at key switch
b. If YES, go to Step 8.

8. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the key switch "S" terminal (Circuit #80 - orange wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 8 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 9.
-- key switch assembly
b. If YES, go to Step 9.

9. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the parking brake switch Circuit #80 terminal (Circuit #80 - orange wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least +12.6
VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 9 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 10.
-- Circuit 80 wire condition
-- Circuit 80 connection at key switch
-- Circuit 80 connection at parking brake switch
b. If YES, go to Step 10.

10. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the parking brake switch Circuit #70 terminal (Circuit #70 - orange & black wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at
least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 10 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 11.
-- parking brake switch assembly mounting and adjustment
-- parking brake switch assembly condition
b. If YES, go to Step 11.

11. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the PTO switch Circuit #70 terminal (Circuit #70 - orange & black wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least +12.6
VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 11 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 12.
-- Circuit 70 wire condition
-- Circuit 70 connection at parking brake switch
-- Circuit 70 connection at PTO switch
b. If YES, go to Step 12.

12. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the PTO switch Circuit #60 terminal (Circuit #60 - orange & white wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least +12.6
VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 12 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 13.
-- PTO switch assembly mounting and adjustment
-- PTO switch assembly condition
b. If YES, go to Step 13.

13. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the starter relay Circuit #60 terminal (Circuit #60 - orange & white wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least
+12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 11 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 14.
-- Circuit 60 wire condition
-- Circuit 60 connection at PTO switch
-- Circuit 60 connection at starter relay
b. If YES, go to Step 14.

14. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the starter relay MOT terminal (Circuit #93 - heavy red wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, did the relay make a single heavy "click" noise?
1. if YES, replace the starter relay and repeat Step 14 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 15.
2. If NO, connect a DC voltmeter DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the battery negative terminal and the red (POS) lead to the starter relay frame. With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read a maximum of +0.1 VDC.
a. If YES, replace the starter relay and repeat Step 14 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 15.
b. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 14 test. If YES on retest, go to Step 15.
-- starter relay mounting
b. If YES, go to Step 15.

15. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the tractor frame and the red (POS) lead to the starter motor BAT terminal (Circuit #93 - heavy red wire). With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read at least +12.6 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 15 test. If YES on retest, but the starter motor does not engage, go to Step 16.
-- Circuit 93 cable condition
-- Circuit 93 cable connection at starter relay
-- Circuit 93 cable connection at starter motor
b. If YES, but the starter motor does not engage, go to Step 16.

16. Connect a DC voltmeter black (NEG) lead to the battery negative terminal and the red (POS) lead to the starter motor frame . With the key held in the START position, the voltmeter should read a maximum of +0.2 VDC.
a. If NO, check and repair/replace the following items as required, then repeat Step 16 test. If YES on retest, but the starter motor does not engage, go to Step 16b.
-- starter motor mounting to engine
-- engine mounting to tractor frame
b. If YES, but the starter motor does not engage, replace the starter motor.

REFERENCE PART NUMBERS PER WIRING DIAGRAM:

Note that your specific tractor may use differnt part numbers. You can obtain a Parts List specific to your tractor online, at no charge, from Troy-Bilt at www.troybilt.com -- your full model number and serial number are required.

Key Switch 725-04228 (common alternatives are 925-04227B & 925-04659)Parking Brake Switch 725-1657A (common alternative is 725-04363)
PTO Switch 725-1657A (common alternative is 725-04363)
Starter Relay 725-04439

Also note that the starter motor is an engine manufacturer supplied part.

Jul 19, 2012 | Troy Garden

### Wrong a/c adapter fried a component dont know how to fix without sending it off (dont want to) any suggestions?

It is possible that you have connected an adapter with a higer voltage or one with a wrong Polarity. In both the cases it is possible that the front end of the player has damaged components.
In some cases there is a possibility of the ZENER which is the protection in the input circuit that could have burned and saved the cicuit as it is normally connected to protect in parallel.
SO you need to check this out , also the short can burn up a fusible resistor or fuse and so could save the circuit. Use a mulimeter to check this section of the circuit. If not there will be serious damage on the main board.

Jul 13, 2011 | Numark Axis 4 CD Player

### A voltmeter should be connected in a series with a component?

A Voltmeter is connected in parallel with a component because in voltage mode it has a high impedance and measures the voltage drop across the component being tested and does not affect any parts of the circuit.
An Ammeter on the other hand is connected in series with a component because in current mode it has a low impedance and measures the actual current through the component being tested

Nov 20, 2010 | Mbt ZTS Inc. Mini-MBT, Mini Multi-Battery...

### Replace AC fan motor now car doesnt turn over right away.

You can try this to verify that the starter is good or bad.

Starter Testing Starting System Voltage Drop Tests NOTE: The battery must be in good condition and fully charged prior to performing this test.
There are three area of the starter motor circuits that voltage drop test can be performed on. These include:
• The starter feed circuit
• The starter ground circuit
• The starter solenoid.
Starter Feed Circuit
1. Disable the fuel system by removing the fuel pump fuse or the fuel pump relay.
2. Verify that the vehicle will not start.
3. Connect the positive lead of a voltmeter to the positive terminal of the battery.
4. Connect the negative lead of a voltmeter to the starter B+ terminal.
5. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage displayed on the voltmeter.
• Ideally, there should be no more than 0.1 volt drop for each connection displayed on the voltmeter. No voltage should be consumed by the vehicle wiring
1. If the battery cable connects directly to the starter motor there should be no more than a 0.2 volt drop measured
2. If the vehicle uses a starter solenoid between the battery and the starter motor terminal there should be no more than 0.4 volt displayed on the voltmeter
Starter Ground Circuit
1. Disable the fuel system by removing the fuel pump fuse or the fuel pump relay.
2. Verify that the vehicle will not start.
3. Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the case of the starter motor.
4. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the negative terminal of the battery.
5. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage displayed on the voltmeter.
• Ideally, there should be no more than 0.1 volt drop for each connection displayed on the voltmeter. No voltage should be consumed by the vehicle wiring
1. If the battery cable connects directly to the starter motor there should be no more than a 0.2 volt drop measured.
Starter Solenoid
1. Disable the fuel system by removing the fuel pump fuse or the fuel pump relay.
2. Verify that the vehicle will not start.
3. Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the case starter B+ terminal.
4. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the lug (the starter M terminal) that connects the starter solenoid to the starter motor.
5. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage displayed on the voltmeter.
• Ideally, there should be no more than 0.2 volt drop across the starter solenoid displayed on the voltmeter.
In general, there should be no more than a 1.0 volt drop throughout the entire starter motor feed and ground circuit. Any voltage drops measured in either the feed or ground circuits after connections have been cleaned will require replacement of the affected battery cable. Typically, any voltage drops measured in the solenoid are repaired by replacing the starter motor.

I looked at all the steps for replacing the blower motor...they should not have messed with anything that would have affected the operation of the starter.

Apr 02, 2009 | 1999 Toyota Corolla

### Why should the voltmeter be connected in parallel n ammeter connected in series with respect to the component in the circuit

Think of electricity as water and an ammeter as measuring the volume of water and a voltermeter as measuring the pressure

Jan 29, 2009 | Mbt ZTS Inc. Mini-MBT, Mini Multi-Battery...

### Why must be a voltmeter be connected in parallel with the circuit component?

to check voltage or Resistance that's the way it has to ne.
it is only used in series when checking amperage.
usually not over any circuit over 10 amps; depending on the
Paul

Jan 04, 2009 | Mbt ZTS Inc. Mini-MBT, Mini Multi-Battery...

### Weak reception, broken surface mount component

You can not find any schematics for the Magellans.  The schematics are classified.  Even when repairing GPS's for Magellan we didn't receive full schematics.  If your talking about the RF cable connector on the I/O Board (the board attached to the rear housing), then it's an easy solder fix.  For the capacitor/resistor:  I'm not sure where you found the capacitor origin, but if it's black with four legs coming off and parallel with the IC then tell me and I'll msg you back the rest.

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