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Are you saying that it surges at full throttle and wont idle down or shut off? If so it is likely not a governor problem. Surging is a lean condition. Some models, particularly yard machines, will surge no matter the adjustment unless under a load. If it were a governor issue it would run faster and faster beyond full throttle. IF it wont idle down check the throttle control and throttle linkage and check for a sticking throttle shaft before suspecting governor. Not shutting off could also be in the throttle control. A ground clip is in the control. if the tab is not engaging the clip or the wire is not connected then the motor will not ground. Check those things before messing with the governor, especially if the machine was running good and no one has messed with it yet. Governors don't just come out of adjustment by themselves.
Check the govenor spring to see that it is not stretched out or popped off...there should be a colored spring on the throttle plate where the throttle lever connects to...also, there are several holes in the plate where the spring attaches...these hole will set the sensitivity of the govenor...you may need to make it more sensitive to hold the engine speed high when engaging the blades
sounds like the carburetor is a little gummy and when the engine shuts off it goes to full throttle by the govenor for easy starting but is supposed to return to the set 3600 rpm. try spraying carb clean on the carb and wiggle the govenor arm to make sure it move freely
Just guessing here, but if there is no control of the throttle and the engine over revs, then more than likely the governor control is broke. Briggs if famous for that problem. Governor is around 25 dollars and a lower crankcase gasket. Requires the engine to be pulled, lower crankcase removed, remove all pieces of old governor and then re assemble with new governor and gasket.////Before doing all this check that both springs are on the governor on the exterior of motor. If you manually hold the governor arm back, counterclockwise, and it still revs, then you need to replace governor. Don't let it rev for long or it with throw a pushrod or worse. good luck
Rigid link to the top hole on govenor arm, spring link to second hole. If engine 'hunts', try the 3rd or 4th hole. Each lower hole will take off a few rpm, but make the engine less prone to 'overshoot' the goverened speed.
If you have not disturbed the govenor arm clamp where it fixes to the shaft that goes into the engine, that should be all you have to do if you have, proceed as follows ;-
Assemble as above. With engine OFF, loosen the govenor clamp. Push the end of the govenor arm so the carb throttle is wide open. Whilst holding it there, rotate the shaft in the same direction as the arm would have rotated it if you hadn't lostened the clamp. Ensure it's rotated as far as possible (this removes ant 'lost' movement in the internal govenor mechanism.). Now tighten the clamp and release everything. Push the speed control to FAST. The throttle should open, and it will requirer about 4 OZ of force on the end of the govenor arm to close the carb throttle. This force will be generated by the govenor when the engine is started
Move the speed conrol to SLOW. Most of the tention should disappear, allowing the throttle to close with very lettle pressure on the govenor arm.
If all this behaves as described, you should be safe to start.
One thing I read is that on some the arm from the govenor shaft can slip on the shaft so the arm is rotated on the shaft to a point the govenor isn't even in contact with the internals driving the shaft. On those units a clamp bolt becomes loose causing the problem.
I suspect if there IS an internal problem it is severe and one would have to disassemble the engine before operating it lest damage occur from loose parts.