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I would start by getting a can of carburetor cleaner and have it 'at the ready' and try the 'start, run stall, start run stall' operation again. Only THIS time, once the engine begins to stall, give it a couple of quick shots of the cleaner into the air filter to see if it stays running on the cleaner.
If it does, then it's still a fuel problem. If it doesn't, then it probably an ignition problem. I would be sort of leaning towards the ignition coil getting weak. The reason I'm saying that is your statement about it running (I'm assuming cold start) for at first, 10 minutes then it stalls. Start it again and it runs for a couple of minutes and stalls again.
This could possibly be from the coil getting warm/hot and not producing the needed spark. After a 10 minute run it simply gets too hot and stalls the engine. After the next restart, the coil is already warm from the engine and so it don't take as long for the coil to get hot and stall the engine again.
So many problems it could be. Bad plug leads, leads on wrong plugs, starter dragging tension down so plugs have weak spark, ignition timing is out? Low fuel pressure, weak compression due to worn bores or piston rings. Damp tension leads, coil, condenser or ballast pack weak. Distributor or rotor arm shorting to earth. You don't say it this happened overnight or vehicle hasn't started in quite a while. Did you do a repair or service the engine?
Gap the plug at .030 What is most likely the main problem is whatever gas sat in the carb. Even with fresh gas there will be some old gas still in the float bowl. You may be able to drain the bowl and be OK but I have a feeling that the carb will need to come off and be disassembled and cleaned properly. You can try spraying carb cleaner (I dislike starting fluid as it is too volatile and carb cleaner does just as well in this instance) into the carb/intake. Remove the air filter, open the choke, and spray the carb cleaner in through that way if possible. You can actually keep an engine running by spraying with short bursts. Even by just spraying once you should be able to get the engine to start. If it does start but then will not stay running without spraying more into the engine then it is a carb problem.
In the back of the compressor motor you will see a fan, remove the plastic cover to get to it..
Once you have the plastic cover removed and the fan exposed, plug the compressor in and spin the fan with your fingers...be quick as the fan could cut your fingers if you do not get them out of the way..
If the compressor starts working, then the start capacitor is bad on the compressor...if it does not run then you have motor troubles, either replace the motor or get it rewound.
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Did you drain last years fuel out completely? That is usually the problem with small engines. Gasoloine has a shelf life of thirty days and then it starts to turn to varnish. When that happens everythinh in the fuel system gets coated. The carb will not work if it did start. If you did clean and blow out fuel before storage then check for spark. Pull the spark plug and keep it connected to the cable then fasten it somehow to the engine block (Vise-grips). Crank the motor and you should see spark on the plug. All this assuming your battery is good. Did it sit all summer in the heat? Have it checked for cranking amps and voltage. No spark means no ignition system. Spark but no start is fuel system but battery must be 100% before anything else.
I would have to guess that the carburetor need to be rebuilt, if it has sat for a long time without running the gas has likely varnished and has plugged the jets to some extent. also a fresh spark plug is a good idea after you fix the carb.
hi if an engine has fuel /compression and a spark it will run you have compression ,you have fuel (wet plug ) so no spark before you buy a coil check the air gap if that is ok then replace coil and it will run hope this helps