Although familiar with Nikon, I am not completely familiar with the D80. However, it depends what you mean by 'Fix'. If you mean alter then try the following:
While holding down the 'mode' button, turn the master thumb knob at the same time. Whilst doing this read from the window in the top of the body. It should show you what mode you are in, (M) Manual, P (automatic) (S) Shutter or (A) aperture. Chose shutter, and then either with the same thumb knob revolve to the right or left to see the shutter speed in the same window change. If this knob does not change the shutter speed, and you have another knob on the top front face of the body turn this in the same way, without holding down any other buttons.
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Set both the exposure dial and the focusmode to "M" and press the shutter button. Then turn the camera off for 10 - 15 seconds. If this doesn't solve the problem, it's an electronic or mechanical error.
You can't meter through that lens. If the images are too dark, either slow down the shutter speed or open the aperture. Keep going until the picture looks okay on the monitor. If you know how to use the histogram, that's even better. If you go too far and get images too light, reverse the process (faster shutter speed or smaller aperture).
If you have another light meter, you can use that to get a ballpark exposure to start with. Alternatively, take a reading with your other lens at the longest zoom.
Unless you are using high-end Nikon Speedlights with camera and flash set for Auto FP High-Speed Sync, your top flash sync shutter speed on the D80 is 1/200 second. The black band you are seeing at faster shutter speeds is because the second curtain of the shutter begins to close before the first curtain reaches the fully-open position (which is when the flash fires). The higher the shutter speed, the shorter the gap between first and second curtains. To get full exposure with flash, there must be an instant when the shutter is fully open -- first curtain completed travel, second curtain not started yet.
"As the speed increases the final image should get lighter" applies to ISO speed. Higher shutter speeds mean less light reaching the sensor, but that's not the cause of the black bands.
Try etting your ISO lower, this camera can take hihger ISO images but at the expense of grain - shoot at 200 for flash and 100 indoors, and since you are looking for better photos play with the apeture settings go with a lower number for a larger apeture, and or slow down the shutter speed to 1/60th (any slower you need a tripod or VR lens) enjoy!
Your shutter will stick if it gets dirty or dust gets in the camera, a reputable camera shop can inspect the shutter, the sensor for dust & dirt and can clean it for you. If the battery is low while shooting the shutter can also stick on longer exposures.
1. The part was indoors.
2. You are using the 18-135 mm lens with the Nikon D80.
The problem with shooting indoors is that not enough light goes in through the lens to the filter. Solutions:
1. Use the flash with every shot. In case there is not flashlight available, use the on board flash. Press the top button behind the barrel on the camera. It has a lighting icon. It will pop open the flash. If you are in 'P', 'A', 'S' mode, the camera will sync the shutter speed with flash. If the camera is on auto mode (The green camera icon) the flash will pop up and fire by itself.
2. Use the lens with with lowest f stop, i.e. with bigger aperture.
3. Increase ISO. You ought to get usable photographs right up to 800. To change ISO, press the button on the back of the camera which says 'ISO' (Second button from bottom) and turn the primary command dial simultaneously to change ISO setting. Higher ISO speed = Lower shutter speed (But less clarity too).