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I am not an expert but I think there can be little or no modulation of the carrier wave unless there is an audio input to the modulator. Like any audio amplifier a transmitter modulator (amplitude modulation) is quiescent without an input.
If the modulation amplifier and audio pre-amp are working and modulating the carrier wave and the antenna is ok then audio modulated radio frequency must be being transmitted.
It would be an extremely good quality CB that had a modulation meter. Mostly all they have is a meter giving an indication of the rf power being sent to the antenna and that rf (radio frequency) power would be the same whether modulated or unmodulated.
The modulation envelope, incidentally, is traditionally viewed or measured with an oscilloscope.
The indicated rf power could be verified using a field strength meter but the only practical way to discover if a standard CB is transmitting modulated rf is to listen to the transmission on a suitable receiver. If the squelch is turned down it will be obvious if the rf carrier wave is being received as the hiss would be silenced. If no audio is received it can be assumed none is being transmitted.
I suggest you try another microphone and lead and if that doesn't work it is clearly a job for a repair shop.
As long as it was getting a good 12 volts power supply it shouldn't matter. Was the vehicle running and charging the battery OK?
Transmitting takes more power than receiving. And -30 F is pretty tough on batteries.
go to you tube and type in your radio make and model and watch the review on that radio there is a freq adjustment pod for ssb adjustment. they might tell you if not take it to a radio tech and he should be able to alighn it. there is more than one pod for ssb transmitt and receive.
Hi, my name is John. Welcome to FixYa. Take off the cover, with the circuit side down, take a plastic tuning tool, you can get one at your local electronics store. turn your channel select to midway of the band. make sure your modulation is turned off. Key your mic and tune VR13 to the Maximum on the watt meter. this is for the power. Next, locate VR14 turn the modulation up, and say ahhhhhhhhh, repeat if needed. Thanks for choosing FixYa....John
Several areas to check, Squelch should be all the way rotated to the left, Microphone may have a bad wire, bad audio amp.... Deeper problem could be a bad switching diode or bad relay if it is an older rig. Since the mic is the first thing to go bad, that is where you should focus...
if its not transmitting or receiveing its probably a problem in the power supply or antenna/coax.The big transistors you see inside are the output transistors for the transmitter section and would not effect the receive. Does it pick up static with the squelch is open? if so the audio section probably works ok.Have you tried a watt meter with a dummy load to see if the transmitter is working?Before you change components you have to narrow down what section is not working and know why its not working otherwise the new transistors could just blow too if its transistors that are bad.more information is really needed to diagnos the problem.