Charger works good, outputs 19.1 volts and the voltage gets to the circuit board inside the computer. the constant current regulator inside the computer does not output 10.8 volts. Laptop works good from battery but the computer cannot charge the battery when its installed. Need diagram of regulator circuitry and some explanations?
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During the initial state of the charge, the charger operates in a fixed-current mode. This means that the current will be held at a constant rate until the battery is charged to a bit over 18 Volts. During this phase, the output of the charger will not be 18 Volts. This is done for safety and battery preservation; forcing 18 Volts on a battery discharged down to 15 Volts or less could cause the battery to overheat. If no battery is connected, the charge controller may hold the output low until a battery insertion is detected.
The exact behavior of the charger depends on the chemistry for which it is designed, whether Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride, or Lithium ion. If the output of a known-good battery is 18 Volts after charging, and it has normal capacity, the charger is working properly.
However, a bad cell in the battery changes things. If you run a Ni-Cd battery down too far, the weakest cell in the battery may begin to reverse charge from the current coming from the other cells. This usually causes an internal short circuit, and the cell will be stuck at 0 Volts. A battery pack with one shorted cell will read 16.7 -16.9 Volts when fully charged, and the drill will not have the peak power it should. The charger will give you a battery fault indication if it is equipped to do so.
Ok, lets start slowly, do you have both a new battery and a new battery charger? If both attempt to use your old battery with the new charger. Also could be a bad charger or a shorted out battery... Good Luck
Depending on what type of plug it is you may be able to change the fuse. If the fuse has blown then you really need to know why before plugging it back in to the mains. The charger may have a broken wire in the lead that plugs in to the laptop. Usually it happens right near the plug where it gets bent and twisted. It could also be the internal fuse inside the charger box.
If you can't get it tested properly then a new one is your best bet. They are quite cheap on Ebay. Just look for the one for your make and model number and check to make sure the voltage on your chargers label is the same, it's output voltage is probably 19 volts. The voltage must be the same, NOT lower or higher. Then have a look at the label for the current which is in Amps, something like 3.15Amps. You can buy one with higher current than the one you have but NOT lower than the label says.
If the battery is not damaged or totally dead, you can attempt to charge it with any 24-Volt DC charger. The charging voltage rises to about 28 Volts when nothing is connected to the charger. You must first connect (with jumper leads) the positive charger output to the positive battery terminal. Use a test meter to determine the polarity of the battery. Also test the charger output to determine the polarity. Be sure to connect positive to positive and negative to negative. Do this before turning on the power to the charger. If the battery is a "smart" battery; that is with built-in electronic control circuit, the ordinary charger may not work. Normally, a battery will accept a charge until it is nearly completely charged and then the battery voltage will slowly "buck" the charging voltage. When the battery voltage and the charging voltage are equal, no more charging current will flow. Amperes, that is coulombs of current, charge the battery; when the battery is at (approximately) 24 volts and the charger is putting out 24 volts, NO current flows. The battery is then fully charged.
The adaptor supplies more voltage than is needed to charge your batteries and operate the PC so there is a circuit, often mounted on a small, separate board inside the unit that regulates voltage for the PC and monitors and regulates the charge current for the battery pack.
Testing the plug-in adaptor without a load (drawing current from it) is not a reliable way to test it since it could itself be defective and lose some or all of the 19 volts once required to deliver current.
You might try removing the battery pack to see if the PC will turn on without it.
The packs have thermal fuses internally that can fail preventing a charge to take place.