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You are going to have to abandon one of the wires and probably change your outlet to match your cord. I would abandon the red wire. You will have to do this in the breaker panel itself. If you are not familiar or comfortable working in this panel then don`t. If you are then only connect the white and black wires to the breaker that feeds your outlet and your green will be your ground which should already be connected to the ground bar. It is possible that the black and red wires are already connected to the breaker and the white to the neutral bar (this is the way it should have been wired for four wires). If this is the case just remove the white wire and tape it off and don`t use it in your new outlet.
if you are to do it right i would put the lights and receptacles on seperate 20 amp breakers and use #12awg wire it really depends on how much load you are to put on the receptacles and wether or not they will all be used at the same time. the lights will not draw much power at all but is always a good idea to seperate lighting loads from receptacles
at 10kw, that should be about 34130 btu's. With 240 volts, you should be using approximately 41-42 amps. Check the manufacturers name plate for breaker sizing. probably a 45-50 amp double pole breaker will work, also check with a licensed electrician to make sure that the wire is sized correctly for that unit. Hope this helps.
If there is a 15 amp breaker on this circuit now. Then I would assume the the wire to this breaker is only capable of handling that size and NOTHING larger. There are to many variables. You need to know the maximum amp draw rating of the device. The wire size going back to the service entrance (fuse box). You will also need to know the total power draw of the service entrance to determine if the box can handle the total load. Are there any other branches off of this circuit? I suggest that you get advice from an electrician. If you overload the circuit, you may think everything is ok. But you can cause a major problem. I do not think that you want to take the chance of overloading a circuit. This can cause a fire and or death. Have this inspected by a professional. If you insist on doing it yourself.... contact your local building inspector for guidance.
On the 40 amp breaker, you should be using 8-3 w/ground. 10-3 w/ground will work on the 30 amp breaker. 12-3 w/ground is used for 20 amp circuits. Your new heater should have the electrical requirements listed in the user/installation information.
if the heater is 120 volt or 240 volt its really pretty easy. at either end is a cover. remove the cover and you'll see a wirenut or maybe just two wires. one side has an integral thermostat. connect your supply to the two wires on the thermostat. connect the other end in your breaker box with the appropriate sized circuit breaker. wire size feeding it will depend on its current draw. how many watts is the heater? 1500 watts will draw 6.25 amps at 240 volts so you can use 14 ga wire. 2000 watts will draw 8.3 at 240 volts - so 14 ga is still ok. 2500 watts at 240 draws 10.41 amps. 3000 watts draws 12.5 amps at this stage I'd use 12 gauge on a 20 amp breaker.