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Sounds like bird nesting or thread nesting (a user error), where there are thread "barfs" under the fabric. This is caused by the top thread not being seated in the tension disk. Remove the thread from the machine. ALWAYS RAISE the presser foot when threading the upper thread!!! Rethread from the beginning. Verify the thread path is correct. Set the upper tension at the midway point between high & low numbers--you'll probably need to tweak it for your particular machine.
Remember, when experiencing problems, install a brand new needle. Remove the thread from the machine, RAISE the presser foot, and rethread from the beginning.
It also helps to always pull the bobbin thread to the top of the fabric, gently hold both thread tails in your left hand, and then slowly take the first couple of stitches.
I have trouble with this every single time. What you need to do is remove the silver plate right under the needle. If you think of the case as the number 6, put the comma I just typed (a little piece of plastic sticking out from the rounded section at the bottom) under the metal at the bottom.
Then slide the metal plate at the top back on. You may need to turn the knob on the side of the machine (that makes the needle go up and down) to get it to go back on. At this point, as you're turning the knob, the bobbin case should fall back into place.
I just finished doing this myself. Now my issue is that the thread from the bobbin keeps knotting up.
Run the thread around the little silver knob on the top of the machine to the bobbin threader on the top right. Wrap the thread clockwise around the bobbin a few times and then pull the bobbin threader toward the silver bar. If you put your hand on the crank wheel, you will feel a place for your finger to set. Push there and the center of the crank wheel will sideways allowing you to thread the bobbin when you press the pedal. I'm sure my terminology doesn't make any sense.
If you lift up the thread holder, the bobbin holder is inside. Loosen the hand guide to stop the needle from going up and down. Pull the thread around the top thread guide and back into the bobbin holder. Thread the bobbin and move the bobbin over so the guage is "inside" the bobbin. As for the manual, the Singer Merritt 2404 is applicable to the 2430 if that helps.
First, give Mom all your Reese's Peanut Butter Cups.
Then, be sure the bobbin-winding function is not still engaged. Check it again, since on some machines, the mechanism has to be backed off until you hear a click, or until a light turns off. If that's done, check the tension on your top thread, since that's easier, then on your bobbin thread.
If the bobbin didn't get wound evenly (Like if you're hurrying) that will mess up its ability to let the thread flow out, so see if the thread on the bobbin looks as smooth as a new spool of thread.
I hope you got your costume together & had fun aside for that frustration. :^)
all machines thread the same. TTN tension,take up,needle.
Beginning with the spool, guide the
thread through the thread guides to the tension assembly. Pull the thread
through the tension assembly and test it to make sure the tension is working
(To do this test, adjust your tension setting to normal or medium or 5 or
something in the middle. Raise the presser foot and pull the thread through the
tension. It should pull easily!! Lower the presser foot and pull the thread. It
should pull noticeably harder.) If it passes this test, continue up through the
take up lever,then down through the thread guides to the needle. Make sure your
needle is fully inserted and turned the correct way.( If you load your bobbin
case from the left side,the needle rule is normally FLAT to the RIGHT is RIGHT.
There are some exceptions. If you have a newer style drop in bobbin or your
bobbin case loads in the front then the rule is FLAT to the BACK.