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www.autozone.com and make a free account, put in the year make and model and then look at the free repair guides, note that you have to get under the vehicle to change the oil, make sure it is properly supported.
I often have the same problem with my '93 and the best solution I have had is to let it warm up good when I first start it and ride it hard and often. For some reason they like the abuse. The longer I let it sit the worse the cold-bloodedness gets. Also, I know it sounds bad but the harder you ride it, the better its going to start and run.
you can buy a fram filter at Fleet Farm My quad runner 500 calls for 10W-40. What I do is warm the engine a little then pull the plug to drain it then R&R the filter and refill. run it for a minute and recheck the oil level.
it seems that the control motor may be sticking to lock, and/or the angle sensor is bad or causeing this. something to check is the control motor shaft lock. on the left side of the atv there is an electric motor that is bolted to the front crankcase. take the two bolts that hold it on, off. and remove the motor. take a short screwdriver, and you should be able to turn this shaft freely either way. if you cannot nudge it a little the one way it may be stuck and see if this frees it up. if this was stuck and gets freed up. this may just be a temporary lock, but if it continues the angle sensor may need to be replaced.
if the motor shaft was not locked up then the angle sensor may still be to blame. thank you.
Your drain plugs should be visable, if they exist, on the lowest point of the body of the device. If you can't readily see them, consider drying out the entire unit with a hair dryer and a little patience in drying the entire unit. From then on, I would consider evaluating the depth of water before entering. After all, the unit may not be amphibious, which sounds like your intended use!
Also, the battery may be affected by the extreme cold, as they often are, leaving a different approach to this problem. Good Luck!