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Transformation of soil from a solid state to a liquid state as a consequence of increased pressure and differential settlement of footings is known as soil liquefaction.

The features to be considered at the stage of architectural planning and structural design of buildings for protection against earthquakes are:

. a) Building configuration
b) Foundation
c) Control on openings in walls
d) Reinforced concrete bands in masonry buildings.
e) Vertical reinforcement.

Protection measures against floods are:

i) Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks should be avoided.
ii) Buildings should be built at 250 metres away from the sea coast/river banks.
iii) To build proper drainage system in all flood prone areas.
iv) To construct the whole village or settlement on a raised platform higher than the high flood level.
v) To construct the building with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.

The measures adopted to control land degradation in different areas of our country are:

i) Soil erosion in hilly areas can be checked by construction of terraces for farming.
ii) Plugging of gullies by construction of check dams.
iii) A forestation can control soil erosion on slopes.
iv) In arid areas preparation of shelter belts of plants control over - grazing by animals and growing thorny bushes to stabilize the sand dunes.
v) In semi-arid areas, moistures conservation, weed control and proper management of waste land.
vi) Control of mining activities are some of the methods to curb land degradation.

. Industries cause water pollution by:

i) The industrial effluents that are discharged into rivers. They are both organic and inorganic.
ii) The principal industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, tannery, etc.

The damaging effects of earthquakes on the ground are

i) Soil failures such as liquefaction and landslides caused by shaking.
ii) Tidal waves (Tsunami) i.e. large waves on the surface of water bodies, that can cause major damage to shoreline areas.

Two facts which should be borne in mind while selecting a site for a building in coastal areas are:
i) To build at least 250 metres away from the sea coast.
ii) Where houses can be built with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.

Ground movements caused by earthquakes can have several types of damaging effect such as:

a) Soil failures such as liquefaction and landslides caused by shaking.
b) Tidal waves ( Tsunamis ) i.e. large waves on the surface of water bodies that can cause major damage to shoreline areas.
c) Surface fault ruptures such as cracks, vertical shifts, general settlement f an area, etc.
d) Ground shaking i.e., back and forth motion of the ground, caused by the passing vibratory waves through the ground.

The primary objective of earthquake resistant design is to prevent buildings from collapsing during earthquakes thus minimizing the risk of death or injury to people in or around those buildings. There are certain features, which if taken into consideration at the stage of architectural planning and structural improve their performance during earthquake.

The natural factors responsible for landslides are:

a) If slopes are steep.
b) If there is high intensity of rainfall.
c) If slopes have stiffness.
d) Soil layers formed under gravity.
e) Rock layers are highly weathered.
f) Poor drainage.

The man made factors responsible for landslides are:

a) Soil erosion caused due to deforestation.
b) Mining and quarrying.
c) Excavation which is non-engineered.
d) Construction which is non-engineered.
e) Land use pattern.

If buildings cannot withstand the forces of high winds and storm surge, than these buildings are considered vulnerable. Generally those most vulnerable to cyclones are lightweight structures with wooden frames, especially older buildings where wood has deteriorated and weakened the walls. Houses made of poorly constructed concrete blocks are also vulnerable.
Urban and rural communities on low inlands or in unprotected low-laying coastal areas or river floodplains are considered vulnerable to cyclones.

Man made factors responsible for causing landslides:

i) Soil erosion caused due to deforestation.
ii) Mining and quarrying
iii) Excavation which is non-engineered
iv) Construction which is non-engineered.
v) Land use pattern.
. The configuration of an earthquake - resistant building are:

a) Building should have a simple rectangular plan.
b) Long walls should be supported by Reinforced Concrete Columns.

Foundation of an earthquake-resistant building:

a) Assess the potential for soil liquefaction to avoid tilting cracking and failure of structure.
b) Adequate foundation design should be planned so that building can withstand earthquakes.

Vulnerable homes for landslides are those which are situated on:
a) Below hills with outcrops of fractured rock.
b) Steep natural slopes, particularly on weak geologic materials.
c) Developed hillsides where septic - tank, soil absorption systems are used and land-scapes are irrigated.
d) Steep construction-related cut or fill slopes.
e) Areas in or at the mouths of drainages such as canyons.
f) Existing landslides area.

Most vulnerable homes for floods are:
a) If biomas materials like bamboo, leaves, thatch are used to construct huts then they are easily destroyed in floods and washed away.
b) Buildings which are constructed with earth-based material or using stone and brick in mud mortar.
c) Flood plains attract poor urban dwellers because of inexpensive land values.
d) Occupation of areas within the flood plains of rivers especially in areas of high population has increased the vulnerability.

The Effect on buildings due to floods are:

a) Water under high stream velocity washes away the houses.
b) Rising waters may cause in flotation of houses from their foundations.
c) Even though houses remain intact on their foundation, floods may cause severe damage to materials.
d) Velocity of water may erode th foundation of the house which may result in the collapse of the house.
e) Massive floating objects like trees, electric poles, etc., may effect the standing houses and cause significant damage.
f) Other forms of damage are wall erosion, cracks and bulging damage to water supply, sanitation and electrical systems.

Protection measures against floods are:

a) Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks should be avoided.
b) Buildings should be built at 250 meters away from the sea coast/river banks.
c) To build proper drainage systems in all flood prone area.
d) To construct the whole village or settlement on a raised platform higher than the high flood level.
e) To construct the building with a plinth level higher than the known high flood level.

The effects of cyclones on buildings are:

i) Punching and blowing off of corrugated iron roofing sheets attached to steel trusses.
ii) Brittle failure of asbestos - cement sheeting of the roofs of industrial sheds; failure of these sheets is generally ridges and gable ends.
iii) Failure of large industrial buildings with light weight roof coverings and long/tall walls due to combination of internal and external pressures.
iv) Failure of roofing elements and walls along the gable ends particularly due to high internal pressures.
v) Overturning failures of compound walls of various types.
vi) Failures of improperly attached or constructed parapets.
vii) Damage to roof/lintel projections.
viii) Damage to improperly attached windows or window frames.

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How are landslides are formed

The soil gets saturated with enough water to make it more of a liquid than a solid. Then there is no support to keep the soil in place, gravity pulls this liquified soil downward.

Feb 23, 2015 | Office Equipment & Supplies

1 Answer

what is matter?

Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space. According to modern physics, matter consists of various types of particles, each with mass and size.
The most familiar examples of material particles are the electron, the proton and the neutron. Combinations of these particles form atoms. There are more than 100 different kinds of atoms, each kind constituting a unique chemical element. A combination of atoms forms a molecule. Atoms and/or molecules can join together to form a compound.
Matter can exist in several states, also called phases. The three most common states are known as solid, liquid and gas. A single element or compound of matter might exist in more than one of the three states, depending on the temperature and pressure. Less familiar states of matter include plasma, foam and Bose-Einstein condensate. These states occur under special conditions.
Different kinds of matter can combine to form substances that may not resemble any of the original ingredients. For example, hydrogen (a gaseous element) and oxygen (another gaseous element) combine to form water (a liquid compound at room temperature). The process of such combination is called a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction involves interactions between the electrons of the atoms, but does not affect the nuclei of the atoms.

I hope you find it very helpful. Best regards.

Aug 16, 2011 | Apple QuickTime VR Authoring Studio 1.0

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what is a 12 particles inside the protton

The 12 fundamental fermionic flavours are divided into three generations of four particles each. Six of the particles are quarks. The remaining six are leptons, three of which are neutrinos, and the remaining three of which have an electric charge of −1: the electron and its two cousins, the muon and the tau.
There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.[4] Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas charm, strange, top, and bottom quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators).

A lepton is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.[1] The best known of all leptons is the electron which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. There are six types of leptons, known as flavours, forming three generations.[2] The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electrons (e
) and electron neutrinos
); the second is the muonic leptons, comprising muons
) and muon neutrinos
); and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising taus
) and tau neutrinos
). Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons. The heavier muons and taus will rapidly change into electrons through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Thus electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and those carried out in particle accelerators).

Particle Generations Leptons First generation Second generation Third generation Name Symbol Name Symbol Name Symbol electron e
muon μ
tau τ
electron neutrino ν
muon neutrino ν
tau neutrino ν
Quarks First generation Second generation Third generation up quark u charm quark c top quark t down quark d strange quark s bottom quark b
Hope this helps. If it does, pleaseaccept and rate the solution! Contact me with any more questions you may have.Thanks for using FixYa!

Jun 28, 2011 | Computers & Internet

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First of all i need a package which convert my Whole window xp in vista (icons ,start menu.etc......).Scondly i need a mail cilent which also can read the mail with attachments.Tank you

1a> the Vista Transformation Pack -

1b> the Seven Transformation Pack -

I have personally used the above transformation packs before, and they are pretty sweet.... and they have no bad-bugs(i.e. no virus's or malware). Good Stuff.

2a> Mozilla Thunderbird - superior in safety and support, but less known:

2b> Windows Live Mail - very well known but a PITA at times:

Feb 24, 2010 | Microsoft Windows XP Professional

1 Answer


First, try the differential feed. I think that you set it so that the setting is less than 1 to get it to feed in faster than out. If it isn't working, try a higher number.

If you can't get enough this way, the old fashioned way would be to reduce the presser foot pressure slightly and put your left index finger behind the foot, resting on the fabric to impede its progress through the machine.

I think that the differential feed should suffice.

Sep 19, 2008 | Husqvarna Huskylock Computerized 910

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